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. SEQUESTRATION IN SALINE FORMATIONS, USA. STUDY AREAS. . One development concentrated on. . . Two arrangements concentrated on. . Force plants (dab size proportaionalTo 1996 carbon discharges). QAd2047(b)c. High sand pattern in the Frio. . Houston. . 20 miles. SETTING FOR SEQUESTRATION:UPPER TEXAS COAST. QAd2047(c)c. .

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SEQUESTRATION PILOT SITE IN THE TEXAS GULF COAST, USA Susan D. Hovorka and Paul R. Knox Bureau of Economic Geology Jackson School of Geosciences The University of Texas at Austin Collaborators: Mark H. Holtz, Joseph S. Yeh, Khaled Fouad, Shinichi Sakurai Partners: GEOSEQ (LBNL, LLNL, ORNL) Texas American Resources Company Sandia Technologies LLC BP William Flanders QAd2047(a)c

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SEQUESTRATION IN SALINE FORMATIONS, USA STUDY AREAS One arrangement concentrated Two developments contemplated Power plants (speck estimate proportaional To 1996 carbon discharges) QAd2047(b)c

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Pilot site Power plants Industrial sources SETTING FOR SEQUESTRATION: UPPER TEXAS COAST Houston High sand slant in the Frio 20 miles QAd2047(c)c

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Pilot REGIONAL CROSS SECTION OF THE GULF COAST m Sea level – 1000 – 2000 20 miles – 3000 Sandstone-commanded units Base transient framework Mud-overwhelmed units Major development blame zone Carbonate-ruled units QAd2047(d)c

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PURPOSE Early achievement in a high-penetrability, high-volume sandstone illustrative of a wide zone that is an extreme focus for vast volume sequestration. QAd2047(e)c

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PLAN Build on existing framework for brisk start-up, diminishing danger Brine-bearing sand in a coastal, all around portrayed oil field Available logs, 3-D seismic Access, foundation, well bores Subsurface exercises commonplace to nearby group Area recognizable to controllers QAd2047(f)c

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PLAN, CONTINUED Pilot: Scaled-down rendition of a substantial venture Small-volume infusion Short term Thin sand Fault-limited compartment QAd2047(g)c

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COMPONENTS OF THE EXPERIMENT Characterization and demonstrating Permitting and NEPA Well arrangement Baseline observing Injection Postinjection checking Closure Technology exchange QAd2047(h)c

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PILOT LOCATION Houston Site QAd2047(i)c

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INJECTION SITE Proposed checking very much Proposed infusion well QAd2047(j)c

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TYPE LOG Fresh water Injection interim Production in territory ft × K RES SP 2000 2 Miocene Oakville, and so on 4000 Anahuac Shale ~–5000 Oligocene Frio Formation 6000 Vicksburg + Jackson Groups ~–8000 8000 Eocene Yegua and Cook Mountain Formations QAd2047(l)c

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PRODUCTION BASE MAP Model zone: 54 wells 19 wells with logs Proposed screen Proposed injector QAd2047(n)c

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Monitor Injector N SEISMIC MAPPING Time structure, on top MFS-43 QAd2047(p)c

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Monitor Injection Observation well Injection well SP tvdss Top LN/SN SP tvdss Top LN/SN Anahuac QAd2047(q)c

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PILOT SITE VSHALE-POROSITY MODEL 0.4 r = –0.91 0.35 f sc = 0.357 – 0.3824 * Vsh 0.3 0.25 Shale remedied porosity (division) 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Vshale (part) QAd2047(s)c

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TOUGH2 SIMULATION Christine Doughty Lawrence Berkeley National Lab GEOSEQ extend QAd2047(t)c

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TOUGH2 Model Monitor Injection Injector Christine Doughty Lawrence Berkeley National Lab GEOSEQ extend QAd2047(u)c

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PERMITTING Permit from Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Class 5 Permit (trial infusion) Additional report QAd2047(w)c

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MONITORING Baseline, amid infusion, postinjection Pressure, temperature Wireline logs Fluid and gas testing at screen and injector Geophysics – crosswell seismic, 4-D VSP, surface tilt, detached seismic Water supply wells Ambient CO 2 at well head Any extra regions of hazard distinguished QAd2047(y)c

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EARLY SUCCESS Demonstrate that CO 2 can be infused into a saline solution arrangement without antagonistic wellbeing, security, or ecological impacts Determine the subsurface conveyance of infused CO 2 Demonstrate legitimacy of calculated models Develop encounter vital for accomplishment of vast scale CO 2 infusion tests QAd2047(z)c