Section XII

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Penitentiaries made products ONLY for use by the jail or government organizations ... Required jail products to adjust to regulations of the states through which they ...

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Section XII Prisons and Jails

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Early Punishments Flogging Mutilation Branding Public Humiliation Workhouses Exile

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Flogging Through Middle Ages most broadly utilized type of discipline as a part of England Used by American pilgrims and additionally on the Western boondocks Last authoritatively authorized whipping in U.S. – Delaware – June 16, 1952 – robber got 20 lashes Early Punishments

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11 th century England – blinding, cutting off of ears, tearing out tongues of people who poached on the King's territory Amputation has been a piece of a few social orders by: cutting hands off of criminals blinding spies emasculating attackers evacuating tongues of blasphemers breaking fingers of pickpockets Early Punishments: Mutilation

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Early Romans, Greeks, French, and British utilized marking Served to promptly distinguish people who had been indicted some offense 1829 – British Parliament prohibited marking Early Punishments: Branding

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U.S. – marking was standard in the settlements first guilty parties marked on the hand rehash wrongdoers marked on the temple ladies were once in a while marked – rather they were disgraced and compelled to wear blemishes on their dress Early Punishments: Branding

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Ducking stool – a see-saw gadget to which guilty party is tied and brought down into a lake or stream Brank – birdcage like contraption that fit over head. Entryway on front by mouth is fitted with a disposable cutter which enters mouth when entryway is shut Early Punishments: Public Humiliation

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Stock – individual sits with hands secured a wooden structure – head is free Pillory – individual compelled to stand in light of wooden structure that shut over head and hands Early Punishments: Public Humiliation

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Early Punishments: Workhouses Early type of detainment intended to encourage propensities for industry in the poor 1557 – first workhouse opens in England Former British castle called St. Bridget's Well epithet "Brideswill" which got to be equivalent word for workhouse

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Practice of sending wrongdoers out of nation Hebrews sent goat conveying sins of man into forsake to be ousted French sent guilty parties to Devil's Island Russia sent dissenters to Serbia England sent guilty parties to the provinces starting in 1618 – program called "transportation" American insurgency ceased routine of transportation Early Punishments: Exile

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Early Prisons: Middle Ages First jail existed in Europe – 1400 & 1500s – for indebted individuals

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Philadelphia Converted to jail by Quakers Study of book of scriptures was essential technique Goal was to give religion and mankind to detained Offenders held in isolation Penitentiary Era (1790-1825): Walnut Street Jail

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Philadelphia Became known as the "Pennsylvania System" Handicrafts were acquainted permitting detainees with work in their phones Penitentiary Era (1790-1825): Walnut Street Jail

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Penitentiary Era (1790-1825) 1826 – Western Penitentiary opened in Pittsburgh, PA 1829 - Eastern Penitentiary opened in Cherry Hill, PA Other states took after: Vermont Massachusetts Maryland New York

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Introduced "gather," at the same time, quiet style Offenders ate, lived, and cooperated peacefully Corporal discipline was utilized for manage violators From 1825 forward – most penitentiaries inherent U.S. taken after Auburn framework Became known as the "Reddish-brown System" New York State Prison at Auburn Mass Prison Era (1825-1876)

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Reformatory Era (1876-1890) endless supply of uncertain sentence and confidence in restoration Reformatory development is the aftereffect of the work of two men: Captain Alexander Maconochie Sir Walter Crofton

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Reformatory Era (1876-1890): Captain Alexander Maconochie Warden of Norfolk Island jail off of shore of Australia in 1840s detainees at Norfolk were "doubly denounced" They had been "transported" to Australia due to violations they had carried out and afterward they perpetrated extra wrongdoings while in Australia

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Reformatory Era (1876-1890): Captain Alexander Maconochie detainees at Norfolk were "doubly censured" (con't.) Maconochie created "check framework" detainees could win credits to purchase their flexibility negative conduct made imprints be lost Mark framework constituted first "early discharge" program Maconochie got to be known as "father of parole"

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Reformatory Era (1876-1890): Sir Walter Crofton Head of Irish Prison System Adapted Maconochie's initial discharge program Set up four-organize program Entry arrange – guilty parties set in isolation and given basic, unmotivating work

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Reformatory Era (1876-1890): Sir Walter Crofton four-arrange program (con't.) Second stage – wrongdoers took a shot at fortresses at Spike Island where they were housed Field Unit arrange – guilty parties chipped away at open administration extends in the group

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Reformatory Era (1876-1890): Sir Walter Crofton four-organize program (con't.) Ticket of Leave stage – permitted guilty parties to live and work in group under infrequent supervision of "good educator"

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Reformatory Era (1876-1890): Sir Walter Crofton Ticket of Leave could be denied whenever and wrongdoer would serve remaining time of sentence in jail Crofton trusted that reintegration into group was vital for achievement of recovery

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Reformatory Era (1876-1890): Elmira Reformatory (1876) Zebulon Brockway was superintendent at Elmira A main promoter of the vague sentence Elmira acknowledged just first time wrongdoers between ages 16-30

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Reformatory Era (1876-1890): Elmira Reformatory (1876) System of evaluated stages obliging guilty parties to meet objectives in: instruction conduct other suitable objectives

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Reformatory Era (1876-1890): Elmira Reformatory (1876) Training made accessible in such territories as: telecommunication fitting pipes carpentry The development ended up being to be a disappointment

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Southern Prisons Farm work Public works ventures Goal – to boost utilization of guilty party work development started in modern upper east U.S. Northern Prisons Smelted steel Made furniture Molded tires Industrial Prison Era: (1890-1935)

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Types of Offender Labor Systems Contract framework Piece-value framework Lease framework Public record framework State utilize framework Public works Industrial Prison Era: (1890-1935)

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Piece-value framework Goods delivered for private business within jail Prisoners paid by and nature of merchandise they created Contract framework Private business paid for lease of detainee work Private business gave crude materials and directed assembling process within jail Industrial Prison Era: (1890-1935)

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Lease framework Prisoners taken outside of jail to work Once at work site – private agents assumed control supervision and utilized detainees Public record framework Industries claimed totally by penitentiaries Prisons took care of assembling of products from start to finish Finished merchandise sold on free market Industrial Prison Era: (1890-1935)

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Public Works framework Prisoners kept up open roadways, cleaned open stops, kept up and reestablished open structures State Use framework Prisons made merchandise ONLY for use by the jail or government offices Prisons couldn't contend on the free market as a result of reasonable work advantage Industrial Prison Era: (1890-1935)

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Required jail products to fit in with directions of the states through which they were sent States that banned fabricate of free market products in their own jails in this manner anticipated shipment of jail made merchandise from different states under this demonstration Act came to fruition as an aftereffect of objections by work that they couldn't rival shabby jail work Industrial Prison Era: (1890-1935) Hawes-Cooper Act (1929)

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Specifically precluded interstate transportation and offer of jail made merchandise where disallowed by state law Act came to fruition incompletely as a consequence of the Depression Ashurst-Sumners Act viably finished mechanical jail period Industrial Prison Era: (1890-1935) Ashurst-Sumners Act (1935)

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With ban on jail ventures – jails returned to guardianship and security as fundamental objectives Large most extreme security jails advanced in country "beyond anyone's ability to see" areas Punitive Era (1935-1945)

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Development of behavioral methods in 1940s achieved idea of treatment in jails Treatment in view of "therapeutic model" Individual and gathering treatment programs advanced Treatment Era (1945-1967)

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Types of treatment projects: Behavioral treatment Chemotherapy Neurosurgery Sensory hardship Aversion Treatment Era (1945-1967)

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Behavioral treatment organized to give prizes to endorsed conduct while rebuffing improper conduct Chemotherapy Use of medications – particularly sedatives to adjust conduct Treatment Era (1945-1967)

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Neurosurgey Used to control forceful conduct and damaging desires – frontal lobotomies were a piece of this approach Sensory hardship Denial of incitement by detaching detainees in tranquil, disengaged environment Aversion treatment Drugs and additionally electric stun used to instruct detainee to partner negative conduct with agony and dismay Treatment Era (1945-1967)

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Community-Based Treatment Era (1967-1980) tons of group rather than jail Plan is to keep guilty party in the group Half-way house – group based treatment program whereby singular lives at house yet is permitted to go to work amid the day

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State and elected jail populaces, prisoners v. limit, 1980-1998 Source: Correctional Populations in the United States (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, different years) .:t