Section Seven

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Section Seven. WANs and Remote Availability. Destinations. Distinguish system applications that require WAN innovation Depict an assortment of WAN transmission and association techniques Recognize criteria for selecting a suitable WAN topology, transmission strategy, and working framework

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Section Seven WANs and Remote Connectivity

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Objectives Identify arrange applications that require WAN innovation Describe an assortment of WAN transmission and association strategies Identify criteria for choosing a fitting WAN topology, transmission strategy, and working framework Understand the equipment and programming prerequisites for interfacing with a system by means of modem Install and design basic remote availability for a telecommunicating customer

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WAN Essentials WAN Connection between one WAN webpage and another website A WAN connection is normally portrayed as indicate point Dedicated line Continuously accessible connection that is rented through another transporter

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WAN Essentials Figure 7-1: Differences in LAN and WAN network

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PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network Refers to the system of average phone lines and transporter gear that administration most homes Also called plain old telephone utility (POTS)

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PSTN A dial-up association utilizes a PSTN or other line to get to remote servers by means of modems at both the source and goal The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) sets principles and approach for broadcast communications transmission hardware in the United States where two phone frameworks meet is the purpose of nearness (POP)

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PSTN Figure 7-2: A run of the mill PSTN association with the Internet

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X.25 and Frame Relay X.25 Analog, parcel exchanged LAN innovation improved for long-remove information transmission Frame Relay Updated, computerized form of X.25 that likewise depends on bundle exchanging Figure 7-3: A WAN utilizing outline hand-off

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X.25 and Frame Relay SVCs (exchanged virtual circuits) Connections set up when gatherings need to transmit, then destroyed once the transmission is finished PVCs (private virtual circuits) Connections set up before information should be transmitted and kept up after transmission is finished CIR (conferred data rate) Guaranteed least measure of data transmission chose while renting an edge hand-off circuit

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ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) International standard for transmitting information over advanced lines Established by the ITU All ISDN associations depend on two sorts of stations: The B station is the "conveyor" station The D station is the "information" station

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BRI (Basic Rate Interface) An assortment of ISDN utilizing two 64-Kbps carrier (B) stations and one 16-Kbps information (D) station, as showed by the accompanying documentation: 2B+D Through holding , the two 64-Kbps stations can be joined to accomplish a viable throughput of 128-Kbps

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BRI (Basic Rate Interface) The Network Termination 1 (NT1) gadget associates wound match wiring at client's working with ISDN terminal hardware (TE) by means of RJ-11 or RJ-45 information jacks A terminal connector (TA) changes over advanced signs into simple signs for use with ISDN telephones and other simple gadgets Figure 7-4: A BRI interface

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PRI (Primary Rate Interface) An assortment of ISDN utilizing 23 B stations and one 64-Kbps D station, as spoke to by the accompanying documentation: 23B+D PRI joins utilize same sort of gear as BRI connections, however require the administrations of an additional system end gadget—called a Network Termination 2 (NT2) — to deal with different ISDN lines

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PRI (Primary Rate Interface) It is just plausible to utilize ISDN for the nearby circle bit of a WAN connection Figure 7-5: A PRI interface

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T-Carriers Broadband Group of system association sorts or transmission advances by and large equipped for surpassing 1.544 Mbps throughput T-bearers Term for any sort of rented line that takes after the benchmarks for T1s, fragmentary T1s, T1Cs, T2s, T3s, or T4s

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Types of T-Carriers The most well-known T-transporter executions are T1 and T3 Signal level ANSI standard for T-transporter innovation that alludes to its Physical layer electrical flagging qualities DSO (advanced flag, level 0) Equivalent of one information or voice station Fractional T1 Arrangement permitting an association to utilize just a few stations on a T1 line, paying for what they utilize

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Types of T-Carriers Figure 7-1: Carrier determinations

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T-Carrier Connectivity Wiring Can utilize unshielded or protected curved combine copper wiring CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit) CSU gives end to the advanced flag and guarantees association respectability through mistake rectification and line observing DSU changes over the computerized flag utilized by scaffolds, switches, and multiplexers into the advanced flag sent by means of the cabling Figure 7-6: A CSU/DSU associating a T1

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T-Carrier Connectivity Multiplexer Device that consolidates numerous voice or information stations on one line Figure 7-7: Typical utilization of a multiplexer on a T1-associated information organize

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T-Carrier Connectivity Routers and extensions On a commonplace T1-associated information organize, terminal hardware will comprise of scaffolds, switches or a blend of the two Figure 7-8: A switch on a T1-associated arrange

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DSL Digital Subscriber Lines Uses propelled information adjustment procedures to accomplish remarkable throughput over consistent telephone lines Like ISDN, DSL can traverse just constrained separations without the assistance of repeaters

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Types of DSL Term xDSL alludes to all DSL assortments, of which no less than eight as of now exist DSL sorts can be partitioned into two classes: Asymmetrical Symmetrical To comprehend the contrast between these two classifications, you should comprehend the idea of downstream and upstream information transmission

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Types of DSL Table 7-2: Comparison of DSL sorts

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DSL Connectivity DSL network, as ISDN, relies on upon the PSTN Inside bearer's POP, a gadget called a DSL get to multiplexer (DSLAM) totals various DSL endorser lines and interfaces them to a bigger bearer or to the Internet spine Figure 7-9: A DSL association

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DSL Connectivity Once inside the client's home or office, the DSL line must go through a DSL modem Figure 7-10: A DSL modem

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Cable associations require that the client utilize an exceptional link modem , a gadget that regulates and demodulates signals for transmission and gathering by means of link wiring Figure 7-11: A link modem

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Cable Hybrid fiber-cajole (HFC) Very costly fiber-optic connection that can bolster high frequencies HFC moves up to existing link wiring are required before current TV link frameworks can fill in as WAN connections Cable drop Fiber-optic or coaxial link associating an area link hub to a client's home Head-end Cable organization's focal office, which associates link wiring to numerous hubs before it achieves clients' locales

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Cable Figure 7-12: Cable foundation

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SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) Can give information exchange rates from 64 Kbps to 39.8 Gbps utilizing the same TDM strategy utilized by T-transporters Known globally as SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) SONET is self-recuperating Figure 7-13: SONET innovation on a long-remove WAN

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SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) Table 7-3: SONET OC levels

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WAN Implementation: Speed Table 7-4a: A correlation of WAN innovation transmission speeds

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WAN Implementation: Speed Table 7-4b: An examination of WAN innovation transmission speeds

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WAN Implementation: Reliability WAN usage can generally be isolated as takes after: Not extremely solid, suited to individual or insignificant transmissions: PSTN dial-up Sufficiently dependable, suited for everyday transmissions: ISDN, T1, partial T1, T3, DSL, link, X.25, and casing hand-off Very solid, suited to mission-basic applications: SONET

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WAN Implementation: Security Among different things, consider the accompanying issues: WAN security depends to a limited extent on the encryption measures every transporter accommodates its lines Enforce secret key based approval for LAN and WAN get to and show clients how to pick hard to-unscramble passwords Take an opportunity to create, distribute, and authorize a security arrangement for clients in your association Maintain confined access to network gear rooms and server farms

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WAN Implementation: Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) VPNs are wide zone organizes coherently characterized over open transmission frameworks that serve an association's clients, yet disconnect that association's activity from different clients on a similar open lines Figure 7-14: A case of a VPN

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Remote Connectivity Remote get to techniques: Direct dial to the LAN The PC dialing into the LAN turns into a remote hub on the system Direct dial to a workstation Software running on both remote client's PC and LAN PC permits remote client to "assume control over" the LAN workstation, an answer known as remote control Internet/Web interface Through a program, a client at home or out and about associates with a LAN whose records are made obvious to the Web through Web server programming

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Remote Connectivity ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) customer Remote get to customer created by Citrix Systems, Inc. Empowers remote clients to utilize for all intents and purposes any LAN application over an association, open or private Remote Access Service (RAS) One of the least difficult dial-in servers This product is incorporated with Windows 2000 Server

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Dial-Up Networking Refers to the way toward dialing into a LAN's (private) get to server or to an ISP's (open) get to server to sign onto a system Figure 7-15: Choosing a system association sort

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SLIP and PPP Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) Communications convention empowering a workstation to interface with a server utilizing a serial association Can convey just IP parcels Supports just offbeat transmission Point-to-Point Protocol Communications convention empowering a workstation to associate with a server utilizing a serial association Can convey a wide range of sorts