Section 8 Cell Growth and Division

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Area 8.1 - Cell Growth. OBJECTIVES:Describe cell development.. Segment 8.1 - Cell Growth. OBJECTIVES:Define cell division.. Area 8.1 - Cell Growth. OBJECTIVES:Relate cell development to cell division.. Area 8.1 - Cell Growth. Keep in mind that living things:are made up of cellsgrow, or increment in sizeIn most cases, a living thing develops in light of the fact that it creates more cellsAn grown-up basically has a bigger number of cells than

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´╗┐Part 8 Cell Growth and Division Charles Page High School Stephen L. Cotton

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Section 8.1 - Cell Growth OBJECTIVES: Describe cell development.

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Section 8.1 - Cell Growth OBJECTIVES: Define cell division .

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Section 8.1 - Cell Growth OBJECTIVES: Relate cell development to cell division.

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Section 8.1 - Cell Growth Remember that living things: are comprised of cells develop , or increment in size In many cases, a living thing develops in light of the fact that it delivers more cells A grown-up essentially has a bigger number of cells than a newborn child, not bigger cells!

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Section 8.1 - Cell Growth Why more cells, and not bigger cells? Keep in mind that materials enter and leave the cell film How rapidly this trade happens relies on at first glance zone of the cell But, how rapidly nourishment is utilized and squanders are made relies on upon the cell volume

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Section 8.1 - Cell Growth The cell's volume becomes quicker than the surface territory If the breadth builds 10 times , the surface region expands 100 circumstances , and the volume increments 1,000 circumstances ! Figure 8-2, page 160

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Section 8.1 - Cell Growth 1. The way that the surface region and volume don't increment at a similar rate makes issues for the cell The bigger cell will have a troublesome time getting enough oxygen and supplements in , and waste items out . This is a motivation behind why cells don't develop considerably bigger, despite the fact that the life form can

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Section 8.1 - Cell Growth 2. Another reason cells remain little is that the cell does not make enough DNA headings to make more protein much like a town that has developed, yet has not added a solitary book to their library-this outcomes in a "data emergency" CELL DIVISION takes care of the issue!

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Section 8.1 - Cell Growth Cell division-the procedure whereby the cell partitions into two " little girl" cells Most cells are about a similar size, regardless of whether they originate from an elephant or a mouse Rates of cell development? Some quick an E. coli can without much of a stretch twofold it's volume in around 30 minutes; then it isolates.

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Section 8.1 - Cell Growth If they can isolate this quick, why have they not assumed control over the world? They rapidly go through the accessible supplement supply, and the rate of development moderates. There are controls on cell development : certain spots (heart, nerves) once in a while ever separate skin and stomach related framework partition regularly

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Section 8.1 - Cell Growth Some cells get more "wear and tear", subsequently they may should be supplanted frequently The "controls" on development can be killed on and: a damage, for example, a cut or broken bone causes cells at the harm site to be invigorated to isolate quickly this moderates as recuperating nears fruition

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Section 8.1 - Cell Growth Uncontrolled cell development can be extreme Cancer - cells have lost their capacity to control their rate of development; they keep on growing (for no obvious reason) until their supply of supplements is depleted

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis OBJECTIVES: Define mitosis and cytokinesis .

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis OBJECTIVES: Describe the phone cycle , and the progressions that occur amid interphase .

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis OBJECTIVES: Discuss the occasions and the hugeness of mitosis .

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis The division of eukaryotic cells happens in two fundamental stages : 1. Mitosis - the procedure by which the core separates into two cores, each with an indistinguishable number and sorts of chromosomes from the parent cell

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis The division of eukaryotic cells happens in two fundamental stages : 2. Cytokinesis - the procedure by which the cytoplasm isolates, in this way shaping two unmistakable cells. Since eukaryotic cells are unpredictable, the procedure of cell division is likewise perplexing; along these lines it is a sensitive procedure.

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis CHROMOSOMES - are structures in the cell that contain the hereditary data that is passed starting with one era then onto the next prokaryotic cells have chromosomes comprised of long round particles of DNA eukaryotic-made of unmistakable lengths

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Each living being has a particular number of chromosomes (Fig. 8-7, page 165) people have 46 ; goldfish have 94, and so forth. Chromosomes are made of chromatin, which is made of DNA and protein During early division, the chromatin consolidates and the chromosomes turn out to be more obvious .

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Much of the protein is included in collapsing the DNA to fit into the core; and it is in the state of a twofold helix 1973, it was found that the chromosomes' DNA was looped around unique proteins called histones DNA + histones = beadlike structures called nucleosomes - shape a thick fiber

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Chromosome structure: When the chromosomes are more noticeable, it is the begin of mitosis At this point, they contain two chromatids , appended to each other by a centromere (Fig. 8-9, page 166)

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis THE CELL CYCLE : this is the period from the earliest starting point of one mitosis to the start of the following amid this time, the cell develops, gets ready for division, and partitions into the two new girl cells it incorporates mitosis (the time of dynamic division), interphase (a time of no division), and in addition cytokinesis

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis THE CELL CYCLE (proceeded with) Mitosis is spoken to as the M stage, and this is the point at which the core isolates Interphase is separated into 3 stages : 1. G 1 (hole 1) 2. S (DNA blend) 3. G 2 (hole 2) G 1 and G 2 - times of development/action

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis THE CELL CYCLE (proceeded with) The time required to finish a cycle is the time required for it to duplicate itself, and not all cells travel through the cycle at a similar rate: human muscle and nerve cells don't separate at all once they have created stomach related linings develop/isolate quickly

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis INTERPHASE - this is the period amongst divisions, and can be very long. The genuine division happens rapidly. G 1 - (hole 1) - time of movement in which cell development and improvement happens this is trailed by the S stage

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis INTERPHASE (proceeded with) S stage - DNA union. This is the point at which the DNA is "repeated", and a few different proteins are integrated. This is the longest piece of Interphase G 2 - (crevice 2) - generally most brief time, includes the combination of organelles and materials for cell division

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis During interphase, the core is dynamic in blending errand person RNA keeping in mind the end goal to coordinate cell exercises. In spite of the fact that it is by all accounts a "peaceful" stage (for the most part development), it is really a time of serious movement. Fig. 8-11, page 167

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Mitosis (or the M stage) is the way toward isolating the core into two cores may last anyplace from a couple of minutes to a few days Divided into 4 stages: 1) prophase , 2) metaphase , 3) anaphase , and 4) telophase

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis 1. PROPHASE : this is the longest period of mitosis, regularly taking 50-60% of the time first piece of information for prophase is that the chromosomes are starting to show up unmistakably (chromatids joined by a centromere)

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis 1. PROPHASE : (proceeded with) centrioles isolated, and position themselves at inverse sides of the cell (plants don't have centrioles) the consolidated chromosomes append to the shaft (a work like structure that moves the chromosomes separated)

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis 1. PROPHASE : (proceeded with) the centrioles and axle are made out of the sort of protein called microtubules close to the finish of prophase, the nucleolus vanishes, and the atomic envelope separates Fig. 8-12, page 168

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis 2. METAPHASE : as prophase closures, metaphase will naturally start this is the most brief era, just enduring a couple of minutes the chromosomes line up at the equator over the focal point of the phone they associate with the shaft

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis 2. METAPHASE : (proceeded with) the closures of the axle are star-like structures called asters, which act like little "grapples" Fig. 8-14, page 169

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis 3. ANAPHASE : this is the third period of mitosis the centromeres that join the chromatids split the chromosomes repulse each other to inverse sides of the cell Fig. 8-15, page 169

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis 4. TELOPHASE : the last period of mitosis the chromosomes (which have been extremely particular) now start to curl together into a mass atomic envelope changes axle separates

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and Cytokinesis 4. TELOPHASE : (proceeded with) the nucleolus gets to be distinctly unmistakable in every little girl cell core Fig. 8-16, page 170 Mitosis is currently entire; in any case, the procedure of cell division is not

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Section 8.2 - Cell Division: Mitosis and CYTOKINESIS : At this point, two cores (each with a copy set of chromosomes) are framed. Presently, we have to separate the cytoplasm (materials outside the core) cytokinesis - the division of the

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