Section 3 Audit the accompanying terms: phenotype genotype chromosome DNA quality mitosis meiosis gametes traverse zygot

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We can now treat PKU through eating regimen, so kids who might have passed on in the first year of ... PREGNANCY. Just a couple of hundred sperm arrive where egg is, in the Fallopian tube, and ...

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Part 3 Review the accompanying terms: phenotype genotype chromosome DNA quality mitosis meiosis gametes traverse zygote monozygotic twins dizygotic twins

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Chapter 3 Review the accompanying terms: sex chromosomes prevailing quality passive quality pleiotropism modifier qualities PKU as case of autosomal illness (p. 78) X-connected legacy transformation polygenic Down disorder issue of the sex chromosomes (p. 83) hereditary directing

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Ethical question: We can now treat PKU through eating routine, so kids who might have kicked the bucket in the primary year of life can live ordinary life expectancies When they repeat, they will pass on their hereditary infection to their posterity What will happen to the populace after some time?

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PREGNANCY, BIRTH AND LACTATION PREGNANCY: Conception: Three trimesters = nine months = pre-birth period Healthy versus at hazard pregnancies Importance of intrauterine environment

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Childbirth Stages of labor Normal versus confused labor, bungle. Perinatal period: from start of work to 72 hrs. baby blues Breastfeeding: favorable circumstances for newborn child

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PREGNANCY Only a couple of hundred sperm arrive where egg is, in the Fallopian tube, and encompass ovum. Stand out (more often than not) enters ovum Stages of uterine advancement: zygote: 1-14 days incipient organism: 3-8 weeks baby: 9-40 weeks

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Beginning of pregnancy Implantation in the endometrium: @ 7 days around: blastocyst organize Intrauterine environment exceptionally pivotal. Basic and delicate periods Prenatal care fundamental

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PREGNANCY Prenatal Care Essential: Toxemia: expanded circulatory strain liquid maintenance edema can prompt to eclampsia (deadly) Gestational Diabetes

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PREGNANCY Natural strategy for origination can flop Most normal reason: STDs in both men and ladies, which prompt to fruitlessness (e.g. blocked Fallopian tubes or vas deferens) Reproductive innovation can help fruitless couples Most late sensational innovation: cloning

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PREGNANCY More Established Reproductive Technologies: Artificial Insemination: Introducing sperm into lady's vagina or uterus by counterfeit means single lady spouse low sperm number husband dead husband barren: benefactor sperm

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PREGNANCY More Established Reproductive Technologies (Cont'd): IVF: in vitro treatment: test tube or Petri dish is utilized to blend gametes; once isolating, surgically embedded into lady's uterus can utilize both guardians' gametes one parent in addition to giver's can be embedded in surrogate's uterus ("lease a-womb")

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PREGNANCY Testing the Conceptus for Abnormalities: amniocentesis (11-14 weeks) CVS: chorionic villus inspecting (villi) (6-8 weeks) ultrasound (12-16 weeks) fetoscopy blood test

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PREGNANCY TERATOGENS: anything that causes birth absconds (teratos = creature) Critical versus touchy periods Maternal Diseases: Rubella Toxoplasmosis (feline's dung, crude meat) CMV AIDS

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PREGNANCY TERATOGENS (Cont'd): Radiation Chemicals: consumed through lungs or skin High Temperature: hot shower General Environmental Pollution: what we eat, drink, inhale, touch

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PREGNANCY e.g. phthalates: change young men's private parts hypospadias: urethral opening in wrong spot: along the pole, even scrotum increment in cryptorchidia: undescended testicles (more tumor hazard) harm to Sertoli cells: diminished sperm creation; diminished quality

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PREGNANCY expanded sensitivities untimely bosom advancement in young ladies found in: aromas nail clean ground surface delicate plastics paints cements IV lines, therapeutic tubes e.g. nasogastric tube

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Drugs: remedy, e.g. DES, thalidomide OTC "recreational", illicit caffeine ibuprofen, and so forth. PREGNANCY TERATOGENS (Cont'd):

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PREGNANCY TERATOGENS (Cont'd): Smoking: nicotine CO: 200 times more partiality to Hgb than oxygen supply bargained (5% less) diminishes sperm motility: bring down fruitfulness less progesterone: premature deliveries placental issues higher dismalness and mortality from 9/1000 to 33/1000 higher rates of congenital fissure and rabbit lip

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PREGNANCY TERATOGENS (Cont'd): Alcohol: FASD (fetal liquor range issue) mind irregularities: learning troubles ADDH mental impediment, and so on conceivable harm to eyes, ears, invulnerable framework, inside organs, joints, appendages low birth weight expanded rashness, unnatural birth cycle and stillbirth chance

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PREGNANCY TERATOGENS (Cont'd): Alcohol: FASD (fetal liquor range issue) (Cont'd) development hindrance facial and cranial deformities measurement and timing related no protected dosage there is no cure for FASD driving reason for preventable mental hindrance

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PREGNANCY TERATOGENS (Cont'd): All medication impacts: Dose Related: Interactions: difficult to tell primary impacts Possible impacts: unsuccessful labor stillbirth low birth weight touchiness, difficult to mitigate shorter ability to focus (learning) tremors digestive challenges

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PREGNANCY TERATOGENS (Cont'd): Possible impacts (cont'd): organ mutation languor future diseases visual weakness skeletal contortion mental health genital anomalies rashness

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PREGNANCY TERATOGENS (Cont'd): Possible impacts (cont'd): respiratory challenges sicknesses microcephalia heart abandons break births (more C-segments)

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PREGNANCY TERATOGENS (Cont'd): THERE ARE NO TOTALLY SAFE DRUGS! Most defenseless: cerebrum, CNS learning issues ADHD Most regular instrument: oxygen hardship

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PREGNANCY TERATOGENS (Cont'd): Maternal push: intense or ceaseless (more regrettable) adrenaline, corticosteroids: bargain oxygen supply for newborn child after birth: digestive issues low birth weight crabbiness

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PREGNANCY TERATOGENS (Cont'd): Maternal age: not any more obstetrical inconveniences (if solid) expanded Down's disorder Other impacts of these factors: influence maternal-baby connection manhandle disregard dismissal

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PREGNANCY Maternal Nutrition: First trimester: more often than not an issue – extraordinary cases Second trimester: quality Third trimester: quality and amount Important: Folic corrosive: forestalls neural tube absconds (eg. spina bifida)

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PREGNANCY Maternal Nutrition (Cont'd): Infant Optimal Weight: 7 ½ - 8 lbs. (European stock) Low Birth Weight: 5½ lbs. then again 2,500 g Montreal Diet Dispensary, Agnes Higgins: 500 additional day by day calories: 1 qt. drain 1 egg 1 orange

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Low Birth Weight Definition Low Birth Weight : Infant weighs under 5.5 pounds (2500 g) Premature : Infant is conceived at under 38 weeks incubation

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Types of Low Birth Weight Infants * Low birth weight newborn children are either : Preterm (conceived at under 38 weeks growth) Small for gestational age (might be conceived at term) OR Preterm & little for gestational age *5.8% of births in Canada include LBW newborn children (1996) *LWB births include more hazard than "typical" births

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Causes of LBW There is nobody reason for LBW, however some include: maternal smoking; drinking; drugs maternal diabetes absence of satisfactory pre-birth mind poor nourishment contamination obscure causes Even solid moms with great pre-birth care may bring forth a LBW baby (placental issues)

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Risks for the LBW Infant Health heart & lung vision listening to engine issues formative issues Environmental manhandle connection issues Later Deficits learning challenges wellbeing issues may hold on into adulthood There is no real way to foresee which issues, if any a baby may have

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Intervention Necessary during childbirth (revival, drugs, month + doctor's facility stay) Various tests (vision, hearing, formative) distinguish issues Research here at MUN includes surveying LBW newborn children *Note that mediation does not generally prompt to an effective result; all newborn children are distinctive

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Maternal eating regimen can influence the qualities: epigenetics examine: how natural variables (slim down, push, and so on.) can change quality capacity without modifying the DNA succession Genes can incline toward malignancy or diabetes or schizophrenia, yet pre-birth environment can supersede this Genes can be turned "on" or "off", be increased or diminished

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The Dutch Hunger Winter Experience (1944) 40,000 pregnant ladies influenced 400 calories a day Babies in third trimester development (conceived directly after Allied freedom): low birth weight (normal 8 oz. less), shorter, littler head outline Babies conceived 3 months after freedom: typical weight Babies considered 3 months before freedom (first trimester): stillbirth rate multiplied Both second and third trimester babies: higher demise rate in the primary week baby blues

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In adulthood: First trimester (imagined 3 months before freedom): double the rate of CNS deformities, i.e. spina bifida and hydrocephalus. Absence of folic corrosive Effects on third era: Women who were 1 st and 2 nd trimester babies amid the starvation had underweight children regardless of good sustenance and wellbeing

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Maternal Influences in Utero Undernutrition: hatchling will redirect supplements (blood) to its mind, duping different organs Liver development can be hindered: elevated cholesterol in adulthood Also, weight is more probable in adulthood: appestat customized to gorge? Maternal push: cortisol. Hatchling has a "counterhormone" that fizzles if mother undernourished Maternal diabetes: baby gets large amounts of glucose, stretch to fetal pancreas prompts to diabetes sometime down the road Maternal estrogen: in abnormal states can prompt to bosom disease. Corresponded with too high birth weight Low birth weight: inclined to coronary illness later. Danger of hypertension INTRAUTERINE ENVIRONMENT IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT!