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There are around 2 million detained in penitentiaries and prisons ... Popular conclusion surveys show Americans may be softening in their yearning for long jail sentences. ...

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Chapter 3 Sentencing Trends and Incarceration

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Introduction (1 of 2) There are around 2 million detained in penitentiaries and correctional facilites Rate of development backing off Incarceration rate shows by per 100,000 Advantages: permits correlations after some time and between wards

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Introduction (2 of 2) National normal (2003) 482 for every 100,000 Some states have higher than normal Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas Go to http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/correct.htm Federal framework has practically multiplied in past decade

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Prison Inmates Women and minorities have been differentially influenced. Rates are diverse by race and sex White ladies: 38 for every 100,000 Black ladies: 185 for each 100,000 From 1995–2003 Male prisoners expanded 29% Female detainees expanded by 48%

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Sentencing Reforms Sentencing structures Indeterminate Partially uncertain Determinate hypothetical

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The Supreme Court and the Sentencing Process Sentencing rules – government & state U.S. v. Booker & U.S. v. Fan Raises questions about lawfulness

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Chronic Offender Legislation Three strikes law – in California and somewhere else Found protected by Supreme Court and voters rejected changes to it

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Drug Offenders and Prison Overcrowding Majority of those sentenced are medication clients who carry out property wrongdoings. Wrongdoings and recidivist property guilty parties Drug violations 31% of all state jail sentences 45% of every government sentence Racial contrasts in sentencing Drug sentencing influences ladies Greater % of ladies sentenced for medication wrongdoings

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Responding to Overcrowding 22 states and elected framework working over limit Overcrowding as a reason for push? Techniques to Fight Overcrowding Construction, expanding existing offices, twofold bunking, expanded utilization of neighborhood prisons, group based restorative administrations Courts may oblige states to lessen limit 2001 – jail uses was $29.5 billion Contracting with private suppliers

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Texas and California: Leaders in Incarceration Texas – 166,911 California – 164,487 25% of all U.S. detainees in these 2 states Prisons cost every occupant of the U.S. $104 every year

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Front End Strategies to Fight Overcrowding Increased utilization of probation; moderate approvals Drug courts Minnesota is a pioneer Problem of net-broadening

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Back End Strategies to Fight Overcrowding Early discharge; parole Texas and California joined have around 1 million on parole and probation NCCD's examination demonstrates early discharge does not jeopardize people in general

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Future Directions Three strikes Research indicates how costly these laws are Do the prevent wrongdoing? Research is blended however most demonstrate no impact Other feedback is that utilization of three-strikes fluctuates by region

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Social Costs of Prison Expansion  "Opportunity costs" Money spent on jail is not spent on instruction, medicinal services, and so on. More African American men in jail than school?

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Conclusions Research doesn't indicate association between three strikes and more prominent decrease of wrongdoing. Popular assessment surveys demonstrate Americans might diminish in their craving for long jail sentences.

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