Section 28 The Female Reproductive System

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Part 28 The Female Reproductive System Reproductive life structures Puberty and menopause Oogenesis and the sexual cycle Female Sexual Response Pregnancy and labor Lactation

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Female Reproductive System Produce & convey gametes Provide sustenance & space for fetal improvement Give birth Nourish the newborn child

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Sex Differentiation Male & female are vague for the initial 8 to 10 weeks of advancement Female creates because of nonattendance of hormones nonappearance of testosterone & müllerian-restraining variable causes degeneration of (male) mesonephric channel phallus gets to be clitoris, urogenital folds form into labia minora & labioscrotal folds into labia majora paramesonephric conduit forms into uterine tubes, uterus and vagina

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Ovary Ovaries create eggs & female hormones almond-molded organ, 3 cm x 1.5 cm x 1 cm tunica albuginea case like the testicles cortex delivering gametes & medulla holding vessels Each egg creates in its own particular liquid filled follicle & is discharged by ovulation, blasting of the follicle Ligaments appended to uterus by ovarian tendon joined to pelvic divider by suspensory tendon contains ovarian supply route, vein & nerves tied down to wide tendon by mesovarium

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Anatomy of Ovary

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Secondary Sex Organs (Genitalia) Internal genitalia pipe framework comprising of uterine tubes, uterus & vagina External genitalia clitoris, labia minora, and labia majora involve the perineum embellishment organs underneath the skin give grease

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Uterine or FallopianTubes (Oviducts) 10 cm long, solid tube fixed with ciliated cells Major bits of tube close uterus shapes a tight isthmus center segment is body (ampulla) flared distally into infundibulum with fimbriae Enclosed in prevalent edge of expansive tendon (mesosalpinx)

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Epithelial Lining of the Uterine Tube

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The Uterus Thick-walled, pear-molded strong load opening into vagina and tilted forward over the urinary bladder inward & outside os of cervical waterway openings into uterine tubes in its two upper corners Domed fundus above assemblage of organ

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Reproductive Tract with Ligaments

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Histology of the Uterine Wall Perimetrium is outer serosa layer Myometrium is center strong layer 1 cm thick in nonpregnant uterus smooth muscle running every which way creates work constrictions to oust embryo amid conveyance Endometrium straightforward columnar epithelium with thick layer compound tubular organs stratum functionalis is shallow 1/2 shed with every period stratum basalis is more profound layer that recovers another stratum functionalis with each menstrual cycle

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Histology of the Endometrium

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Normal & Abnormal PAP Smears

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Vessels of Female Reproductive Tract Hormonal changes cause winding course vasoconstriction, corruption of the stratum functionalis & menstrual stream

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Ligaments of Female Reproductive Tract

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Vagina or Birth Canal 8-10 cm long, distensible strong tube takes into account release of menstrual liquid, receipt of semen and birth of infant Outer adventitia, center muscularis & internal mucosa in tyke, epithelium is basic cuboidal estrogens of adolescence change into stratified squamous microbes age glycogen rich cells creating acidic pH Tilted posteriorly between rectum & urethra inserted in its foremost wall

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The Vulva (Pudendum) Mons pubis = hill of fat over pubic symphysis Labia majora = thick creases of skin (pubic hair) Labia minora = more average, thin bald folds frame vestibule containing urethral & vaginal openings shape hoodlike prepuce over Clitoris = erectile, tactile organ homologous to glans penis of male Vestibular knobs = erectile tissue around vagina Paraurethral and more noteworthy & lesser vestibular organs open into vestibule for oil

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Female Perineum Showing Vulva

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Components of Female Perineum

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The Breasts Mound of tissue overlying the pectoralis major tapered collection of bosom has areola at its peak axillary tail in armpit contains numerous lymphatic vessels Nipple is encompassed by areola (shaded zone) dermal veins are nearer to surface melanocytes obscure amid pregnancy smooth muscle contracts wrinkling the skin & raising the areola in light of icy, touch & excitement Suspensory tendons connect it to skin & muscle If nonlactating, contains minimal glandular tissue only an arrangement of stretching pipes and fat tissue

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Anatomy of Lactating Breast

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Anatomy of Lactating Breast

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Sagittal Section of Cadaver Breast

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Breast Cancer 1 out of each 8 American ladies Tumors start with cells from mammary pipes may metastasize by method for lymphatics Symptoms may incorporate obvious irregularity, skin puckering, skin surface & seepage from the areola Most bosom malignancy is nonhereditary some invigorated by estrogen Risk elements incorporate maturing, ionizing radiation, cancer-causing chemicals, liquor, smoking & fat admission (70% need hazard elements)

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Breast Cancer Screening & Treatment

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Puberty Begins at age 9 or 10 for most young ladies in the U.S. Activated by rising levels of GnRH which invigorate front flap of pituitary to create FSH & LH (follicle-empowering & luteinizing hormone) FSH animates follicles to emit estrogen & progesterone second sex organs development,  in tallness & width of pelvis gets ready uterus for pregnancy Thelarche = improvement of bosoms Pubarche = development of pubic & axillary hair, apocrine & sebaceous organs Menarche = first menstrual period (age 12) requires no less than 17% muscle to fat ratio ratios in young person, 22% in grown-up Female hormones emitted consistently & in succession

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Climacteric and Menopause Midlife change in hormone emission joined by menopause (end of feminine cycle) normal age of 52 Age related consumption of follicles means less emission of estrogen & progesterone decay of uterus, vagina & bosoms skin gets to be distinctly more slender, bone mass decreases, and dangers of cardiovascular infection increment hot flashes (sudden widening of cutaneous corridors) happen a few times each day HRT = low measurement estrogen & progesterone treatment

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Oogensis and the Sexual Cycle Reproductive cycle - occasions happening amongst preparation and birth Sexual cycle - occasions repeating each month when pregnancy does not happen ovarian cycle = occasions in the ovaries menstrual cycle = parallel changes in the uterus

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Oogenesis Monthly occasion delivering 1 haploid egg by meiosis Embryonic improvement of ovary female germ cells emerge from yolk sac of fetus separate into oogonia & duplicate in number change into essential oocytes(eggs) - early meiosis I most worsen (atresia) by time achieve youth by pubescence 400,000 oocytes remain FSH fortifies finishing of meiosis I, produces optional oocyte & 1 st polar body continues to meiosis II & stops until a great many fertilizations , discharges 2 nd polar body

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Oogenesis and Follicle Development

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Sexual Cycle Averages 28 days yet goes from 20 to 45 Hormone cycle produces progression of control hypothalamus  pituitary  ovaries  uterus Follicular stage (2 weeks) period happens amid initial 3 to 5 days of cycle uterus replaces lost endometrium & follicles develop Postovulatory stage (2 weeks) corpus luteum animates endometrial thickening endometrium lost again if pregnancy does not happen

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Ovarian Cycle - Follicular Phase From start of monthly cycle (day 1) to ovulation(14) most factor some portion of cycle Seldom conceivable to foresee date of ovulation Contains menstrual and preovulatory stages

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Ovarian Cycle - Menstrual Phase During release of menstrual liquid (days 1-5) The 25 essential oocytes that started creating on day 25 of past cycle have been changed into second follicles by day 5 - follicular liquid & crown radiata have framed

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Ovarian Cycle - Preovulatory Phase From days 6 to 14, one follicle advances to graafian organize & juts from surface of ovary atresia of different follicles happens with  FSH Egg ceased at metaphase II phase of meiosis

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Ovarian Cycle - Ovulation Results from a spike of LH (brought about by  estrogen from follicle)  blood stream causes follicle to swell quickly; collagenase debilitates ovarian divider; liquid overflows out with oocyte and is cleared up into uterine tube by fimbriae

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Histology of Ovarian Follicles

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Ovulation Control(Pituitary-Ovarian Axis)

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Ovulation of a Human Follicle

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Ovarian Cycle - Postovulatory Phase Luteal stage - corpus luteum shapes from burst follicle under course of Luteinizing Hormone   progesterone fortifies secretory period of menstrual cycle (in uterus) Premenstrual stage – if no pregnancy, corpus luteum  corpus albicans   progesterone  feminine cycle

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Menstrual Cycle - Proliferative Phase Time of remaking of endometrial tissue lost finally period - mitosis happens in stratum basalis Result of estrogen from creating follicles Reaches 2-3 mm in thickness Proliferative stage

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Menstrual Cycle - Secretory Phase Further thickening of endometrium because of emission & liquid aggregation - not mitosis Due to progesterone incitement of organs Reaches 5-6 mm in thickness

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Menstrual Cycle - Premenstrual Phase Progesterone level falls because of decay of corpus luteum Spiral conduits tighten bringing on endometrial ischemia Pools of blood gather in stratum functionalis

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Menstrual Cycle - Menstrual Phase Blood, serous liquid and endometrial tissue are released Average lady loses 4

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