Section 2 Neuromuscular Fundamentals

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Section 2 Neuromuscular Fundamentals Manual of Structural Kinesiology R.T. Floyd, EdD, ATC, CSCS

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Skeletal Muscles Responsible for development of body and the majority of its joints Muscle withdrawal produces compel that causes joint development Muscles likewise give insurance stance and bolster deliver a noteworthy segment of aggregate body warm

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Skeletal Muscles From Thibodeau GA: Anatomy and physiology, St. Louis, 1987, Mosby.

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Skeletal Muscles Over 600 skeletal muscles contain around 40 to half of body weight 215 sets of skeletal muscles ordinarily work in collaboration with each other to perform inverse activities at the joints which they cross Aggregate muscle activity - muscles work in gatherings instead of freely to accomplish a given joint movement

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Muscle Nomenclature Muscles are generally named because of visual appearance anatomical area work Shape – deltoid, rhomboid Size – gluteus maximus, teres minor Number of divisions – triceps brachii Direction of its filaments – outer diagonal

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Muscle Nomenclature Location - rectus femoris, palmaris longus Points of connection - coracobrachialis, extensor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus Action - erector spinae, supinator, extensor digiti minimi Action & shape – pronator quadratus

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Muscle Nomenclature Action & estimate – adductor magnus Shape & area – serratus foremost Location & connection – brachioradialis Location & number of divisions – biceps femoris

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Muscle Nomenclature Muscle gathering & naming Shape – Hamstrings Number of divisions – Quadriceps, Triceps Surae Location – Peroneals, Abdominal, Shoulder Girdle Action – Hip Flexors, Rotator Cuff

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Shape of Muscles & Fiber Arrangement Muscles have diverse shapes & fiber course of action Shape & fiber game plan influences muscle's capacity to apply compel run through which it can adequately apply constrain onto the bones

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Shape of Muscles & Fiber Arrangement Cross segment measurement figure muscle's capacity to apply drive more prominent cross segment breadth = more prominent drive effort Muscle's capacity to abbreviate longer muscles can abbreviate through a more noteworthy range more viable in moving joints through huge scopes of movement

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Shape of Muscles & Fiber Arrangement 2 noteworthy sorts of fiber game plans parallel & pennate each is further subdivided by shape Parallel muscles strands orchestrated parallel to length of muscle deliver a more noteworthy scope of development than comparative measured muscles with pennate game plan

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Fiber Arrangement - Parallel Categorized into taking after shapes Flat Fusiform Strap Radiate Sphincter or roundabout Modified from Van De Graaff KM: Human life systems , ed 6, Dubuque, IA, 2002, McGraw-Hill.

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Fiber Arrangement - Parallel Flat muscles generally thin & wide, starting from wide, stringy, sheet-like aponeuroses permits them to spread their powers over a wide range Ex. rectus abdominus & outside sideways

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Fiber Arrangement - Parallel Fusiform muscles axle molded with a focal midsection that decreases to ligaments on each end permits them to center their energy onto little, hard targets Ex. brachialis, biceps brachii

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Fiber Arrangement - Parallel Strap muscles more uniform in measurement with basically all strands organized in a long parallel way empowers a centering of force onto little, hard targets Ex. sartorius

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Fiber Arrangement - Parallel Radiate muscles additionally portrayed once in a while as being triangular, fan-molded or focalized have joined game plan of level & fusiform start on wide aponeuroses & meet onto a ligament Ex. pectoralis significant, trapezius

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Fiber Arrangement - Parallel Sphincter or round muscles in fact unending strap muscles encompass openings & capacity to close them upon compression Ex. orbicularis oris encompassing the mouth

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Fiber Arrangement - Pennate muscles have shorter strands orchestrated diagonally to their ligaments in a way like a plume course of action builds the cross sectional zone of the muscle, in this manner expanding the power

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Fiber Arrangement - Pennate Categorized based upon the correct game plan between filaments & ligament Unipennate Bipennate Multipennate Modified from Van De Graaff KM: Human life systems , ed 6, Dubuque, IA, 2002, McGraw-Hill.

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Fiber Arrangement - Pennate Unipennate muscles strands run at a slant from a ligament on one side just Ex. biceps femoris, extensor digitorum longus, tibialis back

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Fiber Arrangement - Pennate Bipennate muscle strands run at a slant on both sides from a focal ligament Ex. rectus femoris, flexor hallucis longus

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Fiber Arrangement - Pennate Multipennate muscles have a few ligaments with filaments running corner to corner between them Ex. deltoid Bipennate & unipennate deliver most grounded withdrawal

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Muscle Tissue Properties Skeletal muscle tissue has 4 properties identified with its capacity to create compel & development about joints Irritability or edginess Contractility Extensibility Elasticity

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Muscle Tissue Properties Irritability or Excitability - property of muscle being touchy or receptive to synthetic, electrical, or mechanical jolts Contractility - capacity of muscle to contract & create pressure or inner constrain against resistance when invigorated

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Muscle Tissue Properties Extensibility - capacity of muscle to be inactively extended past it ordinary resting length Elasticity - capacity of muscle to come back to its unique length taking after extending

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Muscle Terminology Intrinsic - relating more often than not to muscles inside or having a place exclusively with body part whereupon they act Ex. little inherent muscles discovered altogether inside the hand or feet

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Muscle Terminology Extrinsic - relating as a rule to muscles that emerge or begin outside of (proximal to) body part whereupon they act Ex. lower arm muscles that append proximally on distal humerus and embed on fingers

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Muscle Terminology Action - particular development of joint coming about because of a concentric constriction of a muscle which crosses joint Ex. biceps brachii has the activity of flexion at elbow Actions are normally brought about by a gathering of muscles cooperating

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Muscle Terminology Any of the muscles in the gathering can be said to bring about the activity, despite the fact that it is typically an exertion of the whole gathering A muscle may bring about more than one activity either at a similar joint or an alternate joint contingent on the qualities of the joints crossed by the muscle

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Muscle Terminology Innervation - section of sensory system characterized as being in charge of giving a boost to muscle strands inside a particular muscle or bit of a muscle A muscle might be innervated by more than one nerve & a specific nerve may innervate more than one muscle or segment of a muscle

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Muscle Terminology Amplitude - scope of muscle fiber length between maximal & insignificant stretching Gaster (tummy or body) focal, beefy segment of the muscle that for the most part increments in breadth as the muscle gets the contractile segment of muscle

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Muscle Terminology Tendon - Fibrous connective tissue, frequently cordlike in appearance, that interfaces muscles to bones and different structures Two muscles may share a typical ligament Ex. Achilles ligament of gastrocnemius & soleus muscles A muscle may have different ligaments associating it to at least one bones Ex. three proximal connections of triceps brachii

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Muscle Terminology Origin Structurally, the proximal connection of a muscle or the part that joins nearest to the midline or focal point of the body Functionally & verifiably, the minimum portable part or connection of the muscle

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Muscle Terminology Insertion Structurally, the distal connection or the part that appends most remote from the midline or focus of the body Functionally & truly, the most mobile part is by and large considered the addition

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Muscle Terminology When a specific muscle contracts it tends to pull both closures toward the gaster if neither of the unresolved issues a muscle is connected are settled then both bones move toward each other upon compression all the more regularly one bone is more balanced out by an assortment of components and the less settled bone for the most part moves toward the more balanced out bone upon constriction

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Muscle Terminology Ex. biceps twist practice biceps brachii muscle in arm has its source (minimum mobile bone) on scapula and its inclusion (most versatile bone) on span In a few developments this procedure can be turned around, Ex. pull-up sweep is generally steady & scapula climbs biceps brachii is an extraneous muscle of elbow brachialis is characteristic for the elbow

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Types of muscle withdrawal Contraction - when strain is created in a muscle therefore of a jolt Muscle "constriction" term might befuddle, in light of the fact that in a few compressions the muscle does not abbreviate long accordingly, it has turned out to be progressively regular to allude to the different sorts of muscle compressions as muscle activities rather

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Types of muscle withdrawal Muscle constrictions can be utilized to bring about , control , or counteract joint development or to start or quicken development of a body fragment to back off or decelerate development of a body section to avoid development of a body portion by outside strengths All muscle constrictions are either isometric or isotonic

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Types of muscle compression Isometric constriction pressure is produced inside muscle however joint points stay consistent static constrictions huge measure of pressure might be produced in muscle to keep up joint edge in moderately static or