Section 18: The Endocrine System

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Part 18: The Endocrine System. The Anxious and Endocrine Frameworks

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Section 18: The Endocrine System

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The Nervous and Endocrine Systems… Act together to organize elements of all body frameworks Nervous framework Nerve driving forces/Neurotransmitters Faster reactions, briefer impacts, follows up on particular target Endocrine framework Hormone – a middle person atom is discharged in 1 some portion of the body; however directs movement of cells in different parts Slower reactions, impacts last longer , more extensive impact Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Endocrine Glands Two sorts of organs Exocrine – ducted ( sudoriferous, sebaceous, mucous, stomach related ) Endocrine – ductless Secrete items into interstitial liquid, diffuse into blood Endocrine organs incorporate Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal and pineal organs Hypothalamus, thymus, pancreas, ovaries, testicles, kidneys, stomach, liver, small digestive system, skin, heart, fat tissue, and placenta - not only endocrine organs Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Hormone Activity Hormones (H') influence just particular target tissues with particular receptors http://www.edenatwood.com/Receptors continually blended and separated Down-direction = a lot of H' prompts to a decline in target-cell receptors Up-control = low measures of H' prompts to increment in target-cell receptors

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Hormone sorts Circulating – course in blood all through body Local hormones – act locally Paracrine – follow up on neighboring cells Autocrine – follow up on a similar cell that discharged them

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Chemical classes of hormones Lipid-dissolvable – utilize transport proteins created by "liver" Steroid H' - (extensive differing qualities) Thyroid H' - (iodine added to aa tyrosine) Nitric oxide - (NO), is both H' and N' Water-solvent – circle in "free" frame Amine H' - expulsion of CO 2 (- NH 3 + ) Peptide H' ( antidiuretic, oxytocin )/Protein H' ( hGH, insulin ) Eicosanoid H' (prostaglandins, leukotrienes)

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Mechanisms of Hormone Action Response relies on upon both hormone and target cell Lipid-dissolvable hormones tie to receptors inside target cells Water-solvent hormones tie to receptors on the plasma film Activates second errand person framework Amplification of unique little flag Responsiveness of target cell relies on upon Hormone's fixation Abundance of target cell receptors Influence applied by different hormones Permissive (1 st initiated by another H'), synergistic and opposing impacts

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Lipid-dissolvable and Water-dissolvable Hormones Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Blood hairlike Blood slim Blood narrow Blood fine Free hormone Free hormone Free hormone Free hormone Lipid-solvent hormone diffuses into cell Lipid-dissolvable hormone diffuses into cell Lipid-solvent hormone diffuses into cell Lipid-solvent hormone diffuses into cell 1 Transport protein Transport protein Transport protein Transport protein 2 Activated receptor-hormone complex adjusts quality expression Activated receptor-hormone complex modifies quality expression Activated receptor-hormone complex modifies quality expression Nucleus Receptor DNA Cytosol mRNA 3 Newly framed mRNA coordinates blend of particular proteins on ribosomes Newly shaped mRNA coordinates amalgamation of particular proteins on ribosomes Ribosome New protein 4 New proteins modify cell's movement Target cell Target cell Target cell Target cell

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Blood slender Blood fine Blood fine Blood fine Blood fine Blood fine 1 Binding of hormone (first emissary) to its receptor initiates G protein, which enacts adenylate cyclase Binding of hormone (first detachment) to its receptor actuates G protein, which initiates adenylate cyclase Binding of hormone (first delivery person) to its receptor enacts G protein, which enacts adenylate cyclase Binding of hormone (first dispatcher) to its receptor initiates G protein, which enacts adenylate cyclase Binding of hormone (first ambassador) to its receptor actuates G protein, which enacts adenylate cyclase Binding of hormone (first errand person) to its receptor initiates G protein, which actuates adenylate cyclase Water-dissolvable hormone Water-solvent hormone Water-solvent hormone Water-solvent hormone Water-dissolvable hormone Water-dissolvable hormone Adenylate cyclase Adenylate cyclase Adenylate cyclase Adenylate cyclase Adenylate cyclase Adenylate cyclase Receptor Second envoy Second delegate Second flag-bearer Second flag-bearer Second flag-bearer G protein G protein G protein G protein G protein G protein 2 ATP Activated adenylate cyclase changes over ATP to cAMP Activated adenylate cyclase changes over ATP to cAMP Activated adenylate cyclase changes over ATP to cAMP Activated adenylate cyclase changes over ATP to cAMP Activated adenylate cyclase changes over ATP to cAMP 6 Phosphodiesterase inactivates cAMP Protein kinases Protein kinases Protein kinases Protein kinases 3 cAMP fills in as a moment courier to actuate protein kinases cAMP fills in as a moment flag-bearer to enact protein kinases cAMP fills in as a moment flag-bearer to initiate protein kinases cAMP fills in as a moment flag-bearer to initiate protein kinases Activated protein kinases Activated protein kinases Activated protein kinases Activated protein kinases 4 Activated protein kinases phosphorylate cell proteins Activated protein kinases phosphorylate cell proteins Activated protein kinases phosphorylate cell proteins Protein ATP ADP Protein—Protein—Protein—P 5 Millions of phosphorylated proteins cause responses that create physiological reactions Millions of phosphorylated proteins cause responses that create physiological reactions Target cell Target cell Target cell Target cell Target cell Target cell

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Regulated by Signals from sensory system Chemical changes in the blood Other hormones Most hormonal direction by pessimistic input Few cases of constructive criticism Control of Hormone Secretion

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Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland Hypothalamus is a noteworthy connection amongst anxious and endocrine framework Pituitary appended to hypothalamus by infundibulum Anterior pituitary or adenohypophysis Posterior pituitary or neurohypophysis Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Anterior pituitary Release of hormones fortified by discharging and repressing hormones from the hypothalamus Also directed by negative input Hypothalamic hormones made by neurosecretory cells transported by hypophyseal gateway framework Anterior pituitary hormones that follow up on other endocrine frameworks called tropic hormones Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Somatotrophs emit Human development hormone (hGH) or somatostatin Stimulates emission of insulin-like development variables (IGFs) that advance development, protein combination Thyrotrophs discharge Thyroid-animating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin Stimulates union and discharge of thyroid hormones by thyroid 1. Gonadotrophs emit Follicle-animating hormone (FSH) Ovaries starts advancement of oocytes , testicles fortifies testosterone and sperm creation 2. Gonadotrophs discharge Luteinizing hormone (LH) Ovaries animates ovulation, testicles empowers testosterone generation

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Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Lactotrophs emit Prolactin (PRL) Promotes drain emission by mammary organs Corticotrophs emit Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticotropin Stimulates glucocorticoid (i.e., cortisol) emission by adrenal cortex Corticotrophs emit Melanocyte-fortifying Hormone (MSH) Unknown part in people Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Negative Feedback Regulation Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Effects of hGH and IGFs Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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1 6 Low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) animates arrival of Low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) fortifies arrival of Low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) invigorates arrival of Low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) empowers arrival of Low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) empowers arrival of Low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) fortifies arrival of Low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) fortifies arrival of Low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) animates arrival of Low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) empowers arrival of Low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) empowers arrival of High blood glucose (hyperglycemia) animates arrival of High blood glucose (hyperglycemia) empowers arrival of High blood glucose (hyperglycemia) empowers arrival of High blood glucose (hyperglycemia) empowers arrival of High blood glucose (hyperglycemia) empowers arrival of GHRH GHIH 7 2 GHRH fortifies discharge of hGH by somatotrophs GHRH animates emission of hGH by somatotrophs GHRH empowers emission of hGH by somatotrophs GHRH empowers discharge of hGH by somatotrophs GHRH animates discharge of hGH by somatotrophs GHRH empowers emission of hGH by somatotrophs GHRH fortifies discharge of hGH by somatotrophs GHRH fortifies discharge of hGH by somatotrophs GHRH empowers discharge of hGH by somatotrophs GHIH restrains discharge of hGH by somatotrophs GHIH represses emission of hGH by somatotrophs GHIH hinders discharge of hGH by somatotrophs GHIH hinders emission of hGH by somatotrophs hGH Anterior pituitary Anterior pituitary Anterior pituitary Anterior pituitary Anterior pituita

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