Section 12: Telecommunications Systems

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´╗┐Section 12: Telecommunications Systems

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Objectives Identify the fundamental components of a phone framework, and talk about the impediments of phone signs Describe the arrangement of the phone business previously, then after the fact the 1984 Modified Final Judgment, and clarify the distinctions Describe the contrast between a nearby trade bearer and an interexchange transporter, and rundown the administrations every offers

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Objectives (proceeded with) Differentiate between the parts of the neighborhood phone organization prior and then afterward the Telecommunications Act of 1996 List the sorts of rented lines that are accessible and their essential qualities Outline the elements of ISDN, and recognize a fundamental rate interface from an essential rate interface List the essential attributes of casing hand-off, for example, changeless virtual circuits, conferred data rate, and exchanged virtual circuits

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Objectives (proceeded with) Identify the principle attributes of Asynchronous Transfer Mode, including the parts of the virtual way association and the virtual station association, the significance of the classes of administration accessible, and ATM's favorable circumstances and hindrances Identify the primary qualities of computerized endorser line, and perceive the distinction between a symmetric framework and a deviated framework

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Introduction Students used to go into either information correspondences or voice interchanges Today, the two fields are consolidating Voice frameworks exchange PC information and information systems bolster voice Anyone concentrating on the field of information interchanges and systems must take in some essential broadcast communications as well

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The Basic Telephone System POTS is the plain old phone framework that associates most homes and independent ventures POTS lines were intended to transmit the human voice, which has a transmission capacity under 4000 Hz A phone discussion requires two stations, each possessing 4000 Hz

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The Basic Telephone System (proceeded)

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The Basic Telephone System (proceeded with) A 4000 Hz simple flag can just convey around 33,600 bits for every second of data while a 4000 Hz advanced flag can convey around 56,000 bits for each second If you need to send data speedier, you require a flag with a higher recurrence OR you have to fuse more propelled balance strategies POTS can't convey quicker flags

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The Basic Telephone System (proceeded with) Local circle is the phone line that keeps running from the phone organization's focal office to your home or business Central office is the building that houses the phone organization's exchanging hardware and gives a neighborhood dial tone on your phone If you put a long separation call, the focal office passes your phone cancel to a long separation supplier

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The Basic Telephone System (proceeded)

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The Basic Telephone System (proceeded with) The nation is partitioned into a couple of hundred nearby get to transport regions (LATAs) If your call travels between various Latas, it is a long separation call and is taken care of by a long separation phone organization If your call remains inside a LATA, it is a nearby separation call and is taken care of by a nearby phone organization

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The Basic Telephone System (proceeded with) A trunk is a unique phone line that keeps running between focal workplaces and other phone organization exchanging focuses A trunk is normally computerized, fast, and conveys numerous phone circuits A trunk is regularly a 4-wire circuit, while a phone line is a 2-wire circuit

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The Basic Telephone System (proceeded with) A trunk is not connected with a solitary phone number like a line is A phone number comprises of a range code, a trade, and a supporter expansion The territory code and trade must begin with the digits 2-9 to separate them from long separation and administrator administrations

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The Basic Telephone System (proceeded)

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The Basic Telephone System (proceeded) When the phone organization introduces a line, it must not continue any more remote than 12 inches into the building This point is the division point , or demarc Modular connectors, for example, the RJ-11, are generally used to interconnect phone lines and the phone handset to the base When the handset is lifted off the base (off-snare), an off-snare flag is sent to the focal office

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The Basic Telephone System (proceeded) When the off-snare flag touches base at the focal office, a dial tone is created and came back to the phone When the client hears the dial tone, they dial (or press) the number The focal office gear gathers the dialed digits, and continues to put the fitting call

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The Basic Telephone System (proceeded with) Foreign trade benefit (FX) - client calls a nearby number which is then associated with a rented line to a remote site Wide region media communications administrations (WATS) - rebate volume calling to neighborhood and long separation destinations Off premises augmentations (OPX) - dial tone at area B originates from the PBX at area A

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The Telephone Network Before and After 1984 In 1984, the U.S. government separated AT&T Before then, AT&T claimed an expansive lion's share of all nearby phone circuits and throughout the entire the separation benefit With the Modified Final Judgment of 1984, AT&T needed to divide from the neighborhood phone organizations from the long separation organization The nearby phone organizations shaped seven Regional Bell Operating Companies Today, there are just 4 left: Bell South, SBC, Qwest (US West), and Verizon (Bell Atlantic)

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The Telephone Network Before and After 1984 (proceeded)

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The Telephone Network Before and After 1984 (proceeded with) Another aftereffect of the Modified Judgment was the making of the LATA (neighborhood get to and transport territory) Local phone organizations got to be known as neighborhood trade bearers (LECs) Long separation phone organizations got to be known as interexchange bearers (IEC, or IXC) Calls that stay inside a LATA are intra-LATA , or nearby Calls that go starting with one LATA then onto the next are between LATA , or long separation

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The Telephone Network Before and After 1984 (proceeded) Before 1984, the phone arrange in the U.S. looked like an expansive various leveled tree, with Class 5 workplaces at the base and Class 1 workplaces at the top Users were associated with the Class 5 workplaces The more extended the separation of a phone call, the further up the tree the call advanced Today's phone structure is a gathering of LECs, POPs, and IECs

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Telephone Networks after 1996 Telecommunications Act of 1996: opened up the nearby phone market to contenders Now satellite TV organizations (link communication), long separation phone organizations, or anybody that needed to begin a neighborhood phone organization could offer nearby telephone utility Local telephone organizations that existed before the Act are known as occupant neighborhood trade transporters (ILEC) while the new organizations are aggressive neighborhood trade bearers (CLEC)

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Telephone Networks after 1996 (proceeded with) LECs should permit CLECs access to every single nearby circle and exchanging focuses/focal workplaces If a nearby circle is harmed, the LEC is in charge of repair The LEC is additionally expected to give the CLEC a markdown to the dial tone (17-20%) LECs can likewise give long separation benefit on the off chance that they can appear there is adequate rivalry at the neighborhood benefit level

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Other Players in the Market Alternate administrator administrations - pay telephones, lodging telephones Aggregators - pulls a pack of little organizations together and follows telephone rebates Reseller - leases or rents assortment of lines from telephone organizations, then exchanges to clients Specialized portable radio bearers - versatile correspondence administrations to organizations and people, including dispatch, paging, and information administrations ARDIS and RAM Mobile Data two great illustrations

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PBX Private branch trade (PBX) - normal inner telephone exchanging framework for medium to huge measured organizations Provides progressed clever elements to clients, for example, 4-digit inward dialing Special prefixes for WATS, FX, and so forth (private dialing plans) PBX astutely chooses how to highway a call for least cost

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More PBX Features Voice mail Routes approaching calls to the best station set (programmed call conveyance) Provides recorded messages and reacts to touch-tone demands (computerized chaperon) Access to database stockpiling and recovery (intuitive voice reaction) VoIP

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PBX Components CPU, memory, phone lines, trunks Switching system Supporting rationale cards Main dispersion outline Console or switchboard Battery go down framework

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Automated Attendant Plays a recorded welcome and offers an arrangement of alternatives Lets the guest enter an augmentation specifically (touch tone or voice) and sidestep an "administrator" Forwards the guest to a human administrator if the guest does not have a touch tone telephone Available as a choice on a PBX

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Automatic Call Distributor Automatic Call Distributor: maybe you've encountered this when you call a business, are told all administrators/experts/bolster staff and so forth are occupied, and that your call will be replied in the request it was gotten Used in frameworks where approaching calling volume is substantial, for example, client benefit, help work area, arrange passage, credit approval, reservations, and index deals Early frameworks utilized chase bunches Original frameworks steered call to first administrator in line (kept individual extremely occupied!)

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Automatic Call Distributor (proceeded with) Modern frameworks perform more propelled capacities, for example, Prioritize the calls Route calls to fitting operator in view of the ability set of the specialist If all specialists occupied, convey call to holding up line and play suitable message (like to what extent they may need to hold up) Forward calls to another call focus, or perform programmed return call

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Interactive Voice Response I