Section 1 Ancient America and Africa

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The Peoples of America Before Columbus. Relocation to the Americas. Archeologists have uncovered remains indicating the entry of people in America at around 35,000 B.C.E.Scientists by and large concur that the first tenants of the Americas were roaming explorers from Siberia. These people groups crossed an old area span which associated upper east Asia with Alaska..

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´╗┐Section 1 Ancient America and Africa The American People , sixth ed.

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The Peoples of America Before Columbus

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Migration to the Americas Archeologists have uncovered remains indicating the entry of people in America at around 35,000 B.C.E. Researchers by and large concur that the main occupants of the Americas were roaming explorers from Siberia. These people groups navigated an antiquated land connect which associated upper east Asia with Alaska.

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Hunters, Farmers, and Environmental Factors The primary flood of people found a plenitude of megafauna : enormous creatures. Changes in condition and over-chasing wiped most out. Versatile people figured out how to abuse new wellsprings of nourishment from plants in the horticultural transformation. Disintegration, deforestation, and salinization added to America's ecological worries throughout the hundreds of years.

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Mesoamerican Empires Mesoamerica : the center area connecting the considerable land masses of North and South America. The Aztec individuals of present-day Mexico numbered around 20 million in 1492. The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan later got to be Mexico City. Aztec society was separated into four classes: honorability, free average people, serfs, and slaves.

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Regional North American Cultures In the southwestern locale of North America, Hohokam and Anasazi social orders created set up groups a large number of years before the landing of Europeans (who called them the "Pueblo" individuals). Local people groups of the Pacific Northwest framed social orders stressing angling, wood craftsmanship and services, for example, the Potlatch. A few social orders of Mound Builders created in the Mississippi River valley and Great Plains.

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The Iroquois A confederation of five unmistakable tribes with brought together land and objectives: The Mohawk (People of the Flint) The Oneidas (People of the Stone) The Onondagas (People of the Mountain) The Cayuga (People at the Landing) The Seneca (Great Hill People)

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Pre-Contact Population Recently, researchers have assessed that the pre-contact populace of America north of the Rio Grande remained at around 4 million. A few appraisals put the number of inhabitants in the Western Hemisphere at around 50 to 70 million at a similar period.

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Contrasting Worldviews The stark contrasts in European and American societies originated from impression of social connections and communication with nature. Contrasts included ideas of property and common responsibility for and nourishment sources.

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Africa on the Eve of Contact

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The Spread of Islam Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, started lecturing the occupants of his disclosures in 610 B.C.E. Islam spread quickly over the Arabian Peninsula and the entire of northern Africa. In the long run, the religion incorporated the vast majority of the Eastern Hemisphere.

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The Kingdoms of Central and West Africa The Ghana Empire The Mali Empire The Songhai Empire The Kongo Kingdom

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African Slavery existed as a typical social condition in this period and had little to do with skin shading. Slaves were an indication of riches for the proprietors, who treated their property exceptionally well. The status of bondage was not acquired and constantly held the potential for inversion.

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The African Ethos As in Europe, the focal point of African social association was the family, which was regularly matrilineal. Independence was viewed as disagreeable and broadly hated. Africans trusted in a Supreme Creator and revered progenitors.

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Europe on the Eve of Invading the Americas

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The Rebirth of Europe Stemmed from resuscitated Italian exchange with long-remove ports. Prompted to a rediscovery of overlooked old learning. Monetary and political ramifications for social orders that survived the Black Death. Fenced in area of domains Development of English Parliament

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The New Monarchies and the Expansionist Impulse From 1450 onwards, France, England, and Spain looked for social and political strength. Monetary pain, common issue, torment, and Renaissance culture urged driving forces to venture into the New World. The Europeans eventually planned to find an eastern maritime course to Asia and adventure the African gold exchange.