Scriptural Interpretation

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Scriptural Interpretation Randy Flores, SVD Theology 121 Ateneo de Manila University Philippines

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"Do you comprehend what you are perusing?" Philip and the Ethiopian Eunuch Read the story in Acts of the Apostles chap 8

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Introduction The three "universes" in Biblical Interpretation

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The Two-Fold Sense of the Sacred Scripture Literal Sense – What the writer expected as the significance of the content. Profound Sense – An implying that the content postures in the light of God's disclosure in Jesus Christ.

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Clarification of Terms Biblical Interpretation Is additionally Biblical "hermeneutics" is from the Greek word, " hermeneuo ", "to decipher, translate, explain, articulate, express, expound on, talk plainly, verbalize" In the strict sense the science or craft of elucidation the philosophy of translation

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Hermes, the delivery person of the Greek divine beings

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Hermeneutics is the "translation of a composed record (content) to reveal what the content is letting us know in dialect reasonable to individuals" (by Prosper Grech, 1988).

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"Analysis" From the Greek word, exposition signifying "articulation, story, clarification, elucidation". Investigation of the composed content to reveal the first significance as the creator initially expected.

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Biblical translation is the assignment of the scholar, while analysis is for the scriptural pro (exegete) who clarifies both philosophical and non-religious materials and offers his work for the utilization of philosophy" (Grant – Tracy, 1973:4).

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Useful References on Biblical Interpretation Pontifical Biblical Commission, The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church (1993). George Montague, Understanding the Bible. A Basic Introduction to Biblical Interpretation (Pasay: Paulines, 1988). Maria Ko Ha-Fong, "Perusing the Bible in an Asian Context" Bulletin Dei Verbum 40/41 (1996). Robert Grant – David Tracy, A Short History of the Interpretaion of the Bible (Philadelphia: Fortress, 3 rd ed., 1984). Gerry Tapiador, The Mysterious Seed: A Simplified Manual on the Tools and the Principles of Interpreting the Bible (Makati: St. Paul, 1988) Erlinda Bragad0 – Arnold Monera, Kaloob: Interweavings on the Christian Story (Manila: DLSU, 1997).

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1. The Historical Critical-Method

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What is it? It is the logical investigation of antiquated writings. It is "recorded" on the grounds that it manages antiquated writings, their verifiable settings and conditions in which these were created and altered, and the procedure by which the last type of the writings came to be. It is "basic", not that it scrutinizes as one searching for mistakes, however that it utilizes logical criteria to judge the content as dispassionately as could be expected under the circumstances about its verifiable and scholarly viewpoints.

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Origin and Brief Historical Background The technique was initially utilized by Greek philologians and pundits of days of yore to set up the best content of the works of Homer . It was received by the Church Fathers like Origen, Jerome and Augustine in their investigation of the Hebrew and Greek types of the Old Testament.

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St. Jerome, supporter holy person of scriptural researchers

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It was refined amid the season of the Renaissance humanists (fourteenth penny. – fifteenth penny.) whose accentuation is on the "arrival to the sources" ( recursus promotion fontes ) thus the investigation of the dismissed antiquated scriptural dialects (Hebrew, Greek, and Aramaic) went to the fore. The Reformers (sixteenth penny.), Martin Luther (1485-1546) and John Calvin (1509-1564) connected the strategy in their study, addresses, and instructions on the Old Testament.

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Martin Luther

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At the season of the Enlightenment (seventeenth - 18 th hundreds of years), still further refinements were made to the technique. Literary feedback turned into a logical train. More important antiquated compositions were found.

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Bible in the time of Enlightenment (seventeenth penny eighteenth penny.) Rise of Rationalism and Scientific Revolution Baruch Spinoza (1634-1677) scrutinized the verifiable unwavering quality of numerous scriptural entries. Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) was brining an entirely better approach for comprehension the universe itself John Locke (1632-1704) attested that reason alone should be the judge of all truth Auguste Comte (1798-1857) established Positivism ("the law of the three phases" – philosophical mystical positive). Revelation of established writings and dialects and important old original copies.

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Baruch Spinoza

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Auguste Comte, father of present day humanism

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Example: another version of the Greek New Testament turned out, a release NO longer in view of the customarily got Greek content (called " Textus Receptus ") yet in light of more established and prevalent compositions as of late revealed. Perused the record Textus Receptus!

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From nineteenth Century onwards, the logical and basic elucidation of the Bible picked up significance and later on it was acknowledged in the Roman Catholic Church. Today, this technique is otherwise called as " the authentic basic strategy ", an essential strategy for scriptural interpretation.

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Goal(s) of the Method 1. Decide the bona fide importance of the scriptural content as an abstract archive (or the "exacting sense "). 2. Decide the accuracy (or scarcity in that department)— the degree to which the real is available in a creator's content.

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Advantages of this Method 1. Check and adjust of the two extremes: Fundamentalism and messages as just great human intrigue stories Fundamentalism : Everything in the Bible really happened and words really talked. Great human intrigue stories : magnificent stories with practically no authentic establishments (like the Ilocano epic, Lam-ang ).

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2. Check and adjust of other current methodologies: - - Ideological understanding: Using the Bible to advance certain ideological perspectives. - Post-innovation or deconstructionism : mindfulness that history relativizes individuals, places, occasion, writings, and so forth. Thus, all elucidations are shaded by the mediator. All translations are subjective. Significance is importance for me.

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Various Forms of the Method 1. Literary Criticism The study which tries to set up, as indicated by settled guidelines, a scriptural content as close as could be expected under the circumstances to the first. This depends on the declaration of the most established and best original copies, papyri, antiquated adaptations, and writings cited by the Church Fathers in their compositions.

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Oldest finish original copy or duplicate of the Old Testament Leningrad Codex, 10 th century A.D.

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Dead Sea Scrolls Discovered in 1947 Copies (pieces) of the Old Testament Manuscripts are dated from 1 B.C. to 1. A.D. Part of the Book of Daniel

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Map of Modern Israel

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Modern Israel

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Qumran Caves

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Isaiah Scroll (found at one of the Qumran caverns)

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New Testament Manuscripts (duplicates of the first content) Oldest original copy 2 nd century, papyrus piece of the Gospel of John

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Codex Vaticanus One of the most established (fourth century) finish composition of the New Testament Also contains a duplicate of the LXX

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Codex Sinaiticus Another 4 th century finish composition of the New Testament, likewise contains the LXX

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2. Philological feedback The etymological and linguistic examination of the content. Point: to know the importance of a word or expression in the book of scriptures by contrasting it and the dialects of Ancient Near East.

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A Text of an Ugaritic Language

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3. Frame Criticism It recognizes what kind or sort of writing is the content and the its social content from which it rose.

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Some Literary Forms in the Bible Myths (Gen 1) Legends (Gen 13) Epics (Exod 14:15-31) Elegies (2 Saam 1:19-27) Poetry (Judith 16:1-17) Parables (2 Sam 12:1-4) Narratives (Book of Tobit) Letters (Romans 2:1-16) Fiction (Book of Jonah) Apocalptic (Book of Daniel and Book of Revelation)

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4 . Source Criticism The investigation of the diverse materials (both oral and composed) the writer's) utilized as a part of making his content so as to clarify the obvious inconsistencies or disparities in the content.

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5. Redaction Criticism It focuses on how and why the author(s) wove together history, conventions, stories to suit a specific gathering of people—the individual writers united ("redacted" or "altered") these materials to deliver a composite composed work.

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2. Some Contemporary Approaches of Biblical Interpretation

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Rhetorical Analysis: It examines the "talked" nature of the content, the effect on the impact of the content on the general population who listened to it. Case: the hyperbolical and determined discourse of Jesus in Mt 5:29-30.

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Narrative Analysis : concentrates how the content recounts a story so as to draw in the peruser in its "account world" and the arrangement of qualities contained in that. See Robert Alter, The Art of Biblical Narrative (USA: BasicBooks, 1981). E.g. The portrayal of an effective story by Nathan to David (2 Sam 12)

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The Sociological Approach – the examination of the social conditions out of which the compositions recorded in the Bible came to fruition. Case: what were the social conditions and political issues amid the composition of the Gospel of Mark?

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The Approach through Cultural Anthropology – It looks to characterize the qualities of the various types of people in their social setting, their way of life and their social qualities. e.g. What is "respect and disgrace" in the Bible?/The wedding at Cana in John 2

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Wedding at Cana By Duccio Buoninsegna

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The Psychological and Psychoanalytical methodologies – They endeavor to comprehend the book of scriptures as far as the experien