Science, Technology and Innovation in supporting Africa s modern Development

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Science, Innovation and Advancement in supporting Africa's modern Improvement. Francis Gudyanga, Changeless Secretary, Service of Science and Technology,ZIMBABWE fpgudyanga@zarnet.ac.zw. Layout of Presentation. Presentation Audit of the CODIST II Idea Note Paper

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Science, Technology and Innovation in supporting Africa's mechanical Development Francis Gudyanga, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Science and Technology,ZIMBABWE fpgudyanga@zarnet.ac.zw

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Outline of Presentation Introduction Review of the CODIST II Concept Note Paper Review of the CODIST II Keynote Speech Africa's execution on some worldwide STI Indicators Africa's Comparative Advantages Lessons for Africa from different areas Africa's choices/goals Recommendations

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INTRODUCTION Modern mechanical advancement requires know-how and ability to embrace, scatter, and actualize science and innovation for viable employments. Numerous African nations related with regular assets and crude materials. Indeed, even with this near favorable position, aside from South Africa, a large portion of the economies have either stagnated or developed gradually. Building S&T limit requires interest in R&D which must contend with other spending needs of the state; regardless, STI are key apparatuses for accomplishing these other need goals. COSTID II 2011 is auspicious to fortify the significance of STI to modern advancement Africa is not totally homogenous; there are differences between various nations and locales in the mainland. Three gatherings as far as innovative headway: South Africa, North Africa, Sub-Sahara Africa Differences between African nations minor contrasted with abberations amongst Africa and different districts. Difficulties and openings all through the mainland are comparable. All through this introduction Africa will be displayed as one.

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Review of the CODIST II Concept paper Well investigated and referenced Balanced Sets the correct scene Reminds us of past presentations by African governments on the significance of STI Notes that affirmations not coordinated with essential money related allotments to STI programs

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REVIEW OF THE KEYNOTE SPEECH Well organized paper Broad outline of the status of STI in Africa Information of the WB and ADB North Africa gathered with Middle East Manufacturing picked as an illustrative case to portray Africa's industialisation Competitive Industrial Performance Index (CIP), the Global Competitive Index (GCI) and the Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) utilized for similar examination. The paper picks likewise Tunisia in Africa for nitty gritty examination with India and Malaysia and draw lessons for whatever is left of Africa. The paper touches base as an indistinguishable conclusion from landed at utilizing other arrangement of markers. The conclusion is that Africa's modern execution is dreary. The paper gives nitty gritty meanings of Innovation and the mind boggling National Innovations Systems to help approach producers to comprehend these ideas with a view to settling on educated arrangement choices. On STI the paper suggests interest in broad preparing and research as fundamental strides toward changing the mainland into an information society. He admirably prescribes concentrating the constrained assets towards very much focused on research.

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Indicators of the Technology Achievement Index (TAI)

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TAI Ranking of 67 chose nations

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Imports Exports GERD Researchers Publications Patents GDP

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Indicators indicate Africa's Poverty Food instability Diseases Poor framework Industrial stagnation and so forth

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HDI: Composite measure of wellbeing, instruction and pay

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AFRICA'S COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES Natural Resources African oil Minerals Fresh water – Lake Victoria, Lake Volta, Kariba Dam Hydroelectric esteem Oceans – Atlantic and Indian Oceans Fishing, mining and seaward oil penetrating Human capital

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"Take it back: Europe's new auto reusing laws," – Stephen Power, p. W15, WSJE (April 21-23, 2006) Automakers required to "reuse 85% of a vehicle by weight, ascending to 95 % in 2015" "Automakers are progressively utilizing engineered materials, for example, strengthened plastics, to bring down the vehicle weight and outflows. Those materials are significantly harder to reuse than customary non-manufactured materials" DaimlerChrysler… .has started constructing Mercedes-Benz autos with outsides made somewhat of a kind of banana-plant fiber that is both more biodegradable and lighter than outsides produced using routine glass filaments"

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Resource Curse " Almost no matter what, the asset bounteous nations have stagnated in financial development since the mid 1970s, motivating the term, 'revile of common assets'. Observational reviews have demonstrated that this revile is a sensibly strong reality … ..Except for the immediate commitment of the normal asset segment itself, … regular asset plenteous nations efficiently neglected to accomplish solid fare drove development or different sorts of development" -Sachs and Warner, European Economic Rev., 45 , 827-838 (2001)

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Resource Curse "Financial development since 1965 has changed conversely with the share of common capital in national riches crosswise over nations… ." "Characteristic capital seems to swarm out human capital, consequently backing off the pace of monetary improvement" "..countries that trust that regular capital is their most essential resource may build up an incorrect feeling that all is well with the world and turned out to be careless about the aggregation of human capital" -Gylfason, European Economic Rev., 45 , 847- 859 (2001)

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Minerals and Africa's Knowledge Economy Can "expansive scale interests in investigation, transportation, geographical learning, and the innovations of extraction, refining, and use " help to change Africa's minerals area into "a main edge of the information economy" in the mainland?

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Challenge: Sustainable Development by means of Export of Unprocessed Metal Ores? 10000000 1000000 Discovery 100000 10000 Extraction Copper, Gg 1000 100 Copper; after Gordon et al., Proceed. Nat. Acad. Sci., 103 , 1209 (2006) 10 1 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 1750 Year

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Leveraging regular assets African cartels of items Platinum, jewel, cobalt, chromite, espresso, and so forth Funding limit building and R&D in return for access to characteristic assets University infrastructure,chairs and grants R&D focuses and programs

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Lessons from China and India China: more conventional work concentrated fare procedure India: another learning escalated benefit send out methodology Traditional Industrial approaches from both China and India Protection of baby ventures Direct state possession Selective credit allotment Favorable assessment treatment to particular enterprises Tariff and non-levy hindrances to imports Restrictions on FDI Local substance necessities Special IPR arrangements Government acquirement Promotion of extensive local firms SMEs: saved by law certain items Massive interest in Higher Education

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Lessons from India and China (cont.) Modern mechanical Strategies for taking advantage of worldwide information: Trade, FDI, innovation authorizing, replicating and figuring out, outside instruction and preparing, getting to data in print and web, huge market pull, Technology parks to draw in diaspora; Increased spending in R&D for MNCs to do R&D locally MNCs setting up R&D places for creating items for worldwide markets Cost-viability: enlisting moderately low-wage researchers and architects

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Lessons from India and China (Cont.) Africa's difficulties not experienced by India & China Economies of scale - huge residential markets Competitive low work serious fare items Africa not coordinated yet into worldwide supply and conveyance chains through MNCs and inconceivable diaspora India and China now trading innovation escalated products

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Africa's different difficulties Tighter global exchange controls Pressure to diminish tax and non-duty obstructions – GATT Stronger standards about endowments and other roundabout support to unique businesses Stronger teeth to uphold IPR controls Market economy considerably more worldwide market No economies of scale in buying, marking, publicizing and dispersion No minimum amount of exceedingly taught experts to power quick climb the innovation stepping stool

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Africa's activity in support of STI-drove mechanical advancement Political level Political responsibility and initiative of STI Informed STI approaches Policy textures Industrial/exchange strategy mediations in support of STI Harmonization of national arrangements to bring better mix of cross-trimming STI approaches Act in show at territorial and mainland level Economies of scale; cartels on wares

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Action Africa need to take (cont.) Investment in training Primary training Secondary training – science one-sided curiculum Higher Education – emphatically situated towards the securing of learning, fortification of basic abilities; key to the information society Postgraduate and doctoral reviews Meaningful and genuine developments to meet worldwide difficulties PhD holders expected to prepare the up and coming era of researchers and designers

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Action Africa need to take (cont.) Massive interest in R&D 1% GERD over GDP Niche zones or potentially rising advances where there are prospects of jumping Materials investigate – nanotechnology Biotechnology ICT Renewable vitality and so on

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Materials Research Capitalizing on Africa's common assets Need to grow privately suited materials Africa Materials Research Society (AMRS) Formed in 2002 in Daka, Senegal A NEPAD leader program under the Consolidated Plan of Action Developing materials look into limit in Africa The main mainland assortment of experts committed to the exploration on materials

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AMRS Conferences 2003 South Africa 2005 Morocco 2007 Tanzania 2009 Nigeria 2011 Zimbabwe

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Africa-M

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