Schizophrenia: Overview

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Psychosis versus Schizophrenia. Psychosis is a disorder (blend of side effects)

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Schizophrenia: Overview Background Schizophrenia side effects/disorders Schizotypal identity Dopamine speculations Genetic consequences for prefrontal working in SZ Neurodevelopmental theory Neuropsychological records

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Psychosis versus Schizophrenia Psychosis is a disorder (blend of manifestations) – dreams and mental trips Psychotic issue schizophrenia schizoaffective turmoil schizophreniform scatter drug-initiated psychoses Other issue have psychosis as a related component

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Schizophrenia Basics Most basic crazy disease Affects 1% of populace costs billions $$$ p.a. Definition Must last >6 months incl. No less than one month of halluc., fancies, horribly complicated discourse/conduct Can be exceptionally serious 25-half of patients endeavor suicide

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Delusions Misrepresentations of discernments or experience Most regular are persecutory Others referential; substantial; religious; vainglorious

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Hallucinations Disordered observation recognitions without comparing physical boosts Most usually sound-related yet can happen in any tangible methodology

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5 Symptom Dimensions in Schizophrenia Positive manifestations Negative Symptoms Cognitive Symptoms Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Aggressive Symptoms

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Positive Symptoms Additions to ordinary capacity Delusions Hallucinations Distorted dialect/correspondence Disorganized discourse/conduct Catatonic conduct Agitation

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Negative Symptoms Losses of typical capacity Affective leveling Alogia Avolition Anhedonia Attentional weakness Blunted effect, passionate withdrawal, poor compatibility, lack of involvement, unresponsive social withdrawal

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Negative Symptoms Different aetiologies primary (a center component) secondary to:- +ve side effects depression extrapyramidal side effects environmental depreivation

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Cognitive Symptoms Thought issue Odd utilization of dialect incoherence, free affiliations, neologisms Impaired consideration/comprehension reduced verbal familiarity learning/memory executive capacities

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Syndromes in Schizophrenia Type 1 versus Type 2 (Crowe) Liddle's 3-disorders conspire reality bending (constructive) psychomotor destitution (antagonistic) disorganisation

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What Are Schizotypal Personality Traits? Stable characteristics in sound people Tendencies to show components of conduct/insight that are subjectively like those of schizophrenic patients Underlying continuum display

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Schizotypal Personality: Multidimensionality Schizotypal identity has 3 or 4 associated variables … Positive schizotypy Disorganized schizotypy Negative schizotypy 4 th calculate = Impulsive resistance: Is this truly schizotypal identity?

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Schizotypal Personality Measures Positive Schizotypy OLIFE: Unusual encounters (UnEx); SPQ: Cognitive-perceptual component Negative Schizotypy OLIFE: Introvertive anhedonia (IntAnh); SPQ antagonistic element Disorganized Schizotypy OLIFE: Cognitive Disorganization (CogDis); SPQ Disorganization

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Example OLIFE Items Positive Schizotypy: Measure = Unusual Experiences (30 things) - I have felt that I have unique, nearly otherworldly forces -Do you ever feel that your musings don't have a place with you? - Sometimes my contemplations are as genuine as real occasions throughout my life

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SPQ Subscales Positive (Cog-Perceptual) Unusual observations; odd convictions; thoughts of reference; suspiciousness Negative (Interpersonal) No dear companions; exorbitant social uneasiness; choked effect; susp Disorganized Schizotypy Odd conduct; Odd Speech

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Why Study Schizotypal Personality Traits? Testbed for schizophrenia in promptly accessible, solid people Performance of high scorers ought to be like schizophrenics Behavior not debased by drug, ailment, hospitalization and so on

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More Reasons to Study Schizotypal Personality Traits May discover particular relationship with one schizotypal calculate Generates forecasts for relationship with particular SZ side effects

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Schizotypal Personality Traits and Psychosis Proneness Alternative meanings of schizotypy - a prodrome for schizophrenia -schizotypal identity issue -psychosis inclination Follow-up investigations of high-scoring subjects on schizotypal personlity qualities

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Schizotypal Personality Follow Up Studies Kwapil, Chapman and Chapman - 10 year subsequent meet-ups -little increment in Sz for constructive schizotypy measures -Follow-ups of high scorers on the ImpNon measurement did not demonstrate inc. Sz however little increments in different psychopathologies

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Neuroscience of Schizophrenia Dopamine and schizophrenia Recent hereditary qualities progresses Neurodevelopmental speculation

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Brain Dopamine Pathways Nigrostriatal degenerates in Parkinson's infection Mesolimbic positive indications of schizophrenia Mesocortical neg side effects of schizophrenia Tuberoinfundibular

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Signals of reward accessibility Addictive medications: sedatives, cocaine, cannabis, nicotine Food/drink EBS Sex Effective objective coordinated conduct

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Evidence for DA Hypothesis Stimulant medications -discharge DA -amphet/cocaine mishandle - > neurotic psychosis Antipsychotic drugs which are viable at treating positive side effects are DA receptor (DR) blockers esp. D2 DR

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Mesolimbic DA Hypothesis Hyperactivity of mesolimbic DA intercedes positive manifestations of psychosis Accounts for these insane side effects whether in SZ or different issue

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Mesocortical DA Hypothesis Deficit of mesocortical DA intervenes negative and psychological indications of psychosis -more questionable -influences territories, for example, DLPFC -degenerative in some SZ patients -might be essential shortfall -might be auxiliary medication impact

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New Developments in DA Hypotheses of SZ: 1 Good late survey at:-

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New Developments in DA Hypotheses of SZ: 2 Recent advances in sub-atomic hereditary qualities make it conceivably to investigate the impacts of … particular hereditary polymorphisms pertinent to the DA speculation

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Studies of the COMT quality see Egan et al (2001). Procedures of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 98 , 6917-6922

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The COMT quality and SZ Catechol-o-methyl transferase is a catabolic protein that debases DA The COMT quality has two variations which influence the working of the quality (val and met alleles) The quality is on chromosome 22 near areas which have been embroiled in linkage examines with SZ Family and affiliation considers have involved the COMT quality in SZ

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Egan et al 2001: 1 Argued that "unusual PFC capacity" is a helpful halfway phenotype for SZ Intermediate phenotypes will probably be identified with quality capacity than the clinical determination SZ indicate dependable PFC aggravations on psychological tests So do solid sibs inc. MZ co-twins

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Egan et al 2001: 2 DA assumes part in regulating PFC amid working memory (WM) errands As COMT quality influences prefrontal dopamine levels then may affaect WM COMT knockout mice have expanded DA in PFC and upgraded memory execution

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Egan et al 2001: 3 Measured WM and executive capacity utilizing Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) - WCST actuates PFC -DA-mimetic medications enhance WCST execution in SZ Measured prefrontal neurophysiology utilizing fMRI and the n-back WM undertaking - assignment initiates DLPFC -in SZ, and unaffected sibs, DLPFC enactment is wasteful

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Egan et al 2001: Results Controls Sibs patients

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Egan et al 2001: Results fMRI amid the n-back undertaking appeared, for patients and sibs, that DLPFC and ACC initiation effectiveness was influenced by genotype:- val/val < val/met < met/met

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Egan et al 2001: Results Analyzed 104 family trios (2 guardians in addition to case) In 126 quality transmissions from heterozygous guardians to probands the val allele was transmitted 75 times (p=0.03) In unaffected sublings 77 val versus 87 met transmissions

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The COMT quality and schizotypy Various reviews have demonstrated that the COMT quality might be connected to schizotypal identity (Stefanis et al, 2002, 2004), despite the fact that what perspectives are not clear, with high schizotypy related with nearness of val allele

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Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis of Schizophrenia Proposes that Sz emerges from ?hereditary? anomalies in fetal mental health (confirm?) Why ought to such this offer ascent to crest frequency of Sz in high schoolers and mid 20s? Ans: Adolescent neural rebuilding uncovers prior shortage (prove?) Maybe extra neurodegeneration amid symptomatic period of illness

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Neuropsychological records of SZ Usually propose a deficiency in a particular psychological process as in charge of a particular subset of SZ manifestations Thus SZ perform more awful/uniquely in contrast to controls on an intellectual errand intended to gauge the particular procedure

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Neuropsychological records of SZ: Examples Latent Inhibition (Gray) Negative Priming (different) Contextual preparing (different)