Rumen CHO Metabolism

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Rumen CHO Metabolism AnSci 520 Lance Baumgard 3-2-10

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Feed Efficiencies/Feed to Gain Fish (1.2) Broilers (1.9) Turkey (2.6) Swine (2.7) Beef (> 6.0) Why?

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CARBOHYDRATES: CHO work: ENERGY  CHO's are not a fundamental supplement CHO are made of the components: C arbon H ydrogen O xygen Hence the acronym (CHO)

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Rumen CHO Metabolism Advantage: Can expend universes most bounteous natural compound (cellulose) Increase edibility Microbes make the greater part of their own amino acids and vitamins Disadvantage: Lose vitality as warmth and CH4 Loss of dietary glucose

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Rumen CHO digestion system Conversion of dietary macromolecules into pyruvate Starch, cellulose, pectins, and hemicellulose are oxidized to pyruvate 1) Bacterial chemicals hydrolyze plant polysaccharides into monosaccharides 2) Monosaccharides are oxidized by glycolysis into pyruvate 3) Pyruvate is changed over into VFA's, CO 2 and CH 4

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Rumen Digestion and Fermentation Waste Products CO 2 VFA Degradable Rumen Microbial cells CHO microorganisms NH 3 CH 4 Heat Long-chain unsaturated fats H 2 S

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Microbial Metabolism Feed ADP ATP NADP + NADPH Biosynthesis Catabolism VFA CO 2 CH 4 Heat Bacterial Growth Maintenance Transport

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Fates of Fermentation Products Fermentation Products Organic acids Microbial protein Gas (CO 2 & Methane) Rumen Hindgut Absorbed Recycled Absorbed Feces Belch/Bloat Mary Beth Hall

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Microbial areas Adhere firmly to rumen divider Associated with nourish particles Float openly in ruminal fluid Microbial Metabolism The absence of O 2 limits metabolic choices Presented with surplus diminishing counterparts (NADH) Therefore they decrease every accessible compound CO 2 is lessened to CH 4 Pyruvate is diminished to propionate Acetate is diminished to butyrate unsaturated fats are diminished to soaked unsaturated fats

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Energetic Efficiency of VFA Fermentation and Metabolism Cellulose 10 Glucose VFA ATP (6730 kcal) 5240 kcal (1946 kcal) 60A 28.9% Starch 30P 10B Absorbed as glucose ATP (6730 kcal) (2888 kcal) 42.9%

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Glucose  2-5 ATP Acetate Propionate Butryate Lactate CO 2 and CH 4 H 2 O Heat Glucose + O2  36-38 ATP CO 2 H 2 0 Anaerobic versus High-impact Metabolism Doesn't appear as though anaerobic is vigorously intelligent??

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Dietary Polysaccharides Bacterial compounds Monosacharides (glucose: 6 Carbons) CH 4 Glycolysis H CO 2 Pyruvate (3 C) Propionate (3C) Acetate (2 C) Butryate (4C)

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Fermentation of Glucose and Other Sugars Glucose Pyruvate CO 2 Formate Lactate Oxaloacetate 2H Acetyl-CoA Malate Acrylate Fumarate Acetoacetyl CoA Succinate Methane Acetate Butyrate Propionate Succinyl CoA Propionyl CoA Methylmalonyl CoA

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Pyruvate is promptly changed over to VFAs

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Acetate generation Pyruvate oxidoreductase (Most basic) Fd FDH 2 Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Acetate Coenzyme A CO 2 ADP ATP Pyruvate-formate lyase Coenzyme An ADP ATP Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Acetate Formate CH 4 + H 2 O 6H +

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Butyrate (60% Butyrate from acetic acid derivation) Condensation ATP ADP Acetyl CoA Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Acetoacetyl CoA ATP CO 2 NADH 2 CoA ADP CoA NAD Malonyl CoA B-Hydroxybutyryl CoA Crotonyl CoA NADH 2 NAD Butyryl CoA Acetyl CoA Acetate Butyryl P ADP ATP Butyrate

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Propionate Succinate or dicarboxylic corrosive pathway 60-90% of propionic corrosive creation CO 2 ATP ADP NADH 2 NAD Pyruvate Oxaloacetate Malate H 2 O CO 2 Fumarate Propionyl CoA ADP NADH 2 ATP NAD Succinate Propionate Methylmalonyl CoA Succinyl CoA

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Acrylate pathways Important on high grain diets Accounts of 40% of propionate creation NADH 2 NAD Pyruvate Lactate Acrylyl CoA NADH 2 Propionate NAD Propionyl CoA

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Methane CO 2 + 4 H 2 CH 4 + 2H 2 O The above is the general response. There are various chemicals and cofactors required in consolidating CO 2 and H 2 to shape CH 4 Formate + 3 H 2 CH 4 + 2H 2 O CO 2 + 2 H 3H 2 Methane is the dominating hydrogen soak in the rumen Methanogens utilize H 2 as a wellspring of vitality Lyase Preferred pathway

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Volatile Fatty Acids Acetate (2 carbons) Propionate (3 carbons) Butryate (4 carbons) All are squander results of microbial digestion system But all are used by ruminant creature

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Energy Supply to Ruminants VFA 70% Microbial cells 10% Digestible unfermented feed 20% Concentration of VFA in the rumen = 50 to 125 u M/ml

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Utilization of maturation supplements 70-80% of dietary calories and 2/3 of aggregate edible dry matter are ingested crosswise over rumen divider Rate of dissemination into rumen epithelial cells fluctuates with rumen pH and VFA chain length  pH =  assimilation Butyrate > propionate > acetic acid derivation

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Absorption of VFA 70% of VFA consumed from rumen-reticulum 60 to 70% of leftover portion retained from omasum Papillae are essential – give surface zone Absorption from rumen is by detached dispersion Concentration in entryway vein not as much as rumen VFA fixations Rumen 50 - 150 mM Portal blood 1 - 2 mM Peripheral blood 0.5 - 1 mM Absorption increments at lower pH H + Ac - HAc (free type of the corrosive) Undissociated acids (free frame) diffuse all the more promptly At pH 5.7 to 6.7 both structures are available, however most acids are separated: At higher pH, 1 equiv of HCO 3 enters the rumen with retention of 2 equiv of VFA

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VFA Absorption of Ac - (ates) Rumen Ac - Ac - Portal HAc blood H + Metabolism HCO 3 - H 2 O H 2 CO 3 + CO 2 CO 2 Carbonic Metabolism anhydrase HAc HAc Dissociated: Free Form:

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VFA Absorption Rate of ingestion: Butyrate > Propionate > Acetate Absorption more noteworthy with expanding centralizations of acids in the rumen Absorption increments at lower rumen pH Absorption more prominent in grain sustained creatures Faster aging – More VFA delivered Lower pH Growth of papillae

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Acetate Utilization Absorbed through rumen divider Small amt changed over to ketone bodies Most conveyed by gateway course to liver 20% changed over to acetyl-CoA in hepatocyte cytoplasm 80% escape oxidation and is sent out from liver Absorbed by additional hepatic cells and utilized for Energy by means of the TCA cycle Fatty corrosive combination

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Utilization of Acetate in Metabolism 1. Acetic acid derivation (As energy) Energy Acetate Acetyl CoA Krebs cycle 2 CO 2 carbons (10 ATP/mole) 2. Acetic acid derivation (Carbon for blend of unsaturated fats – in AT or MG) Acetate Acetyl CoA Fatty acids Lipids H + NADPH NADP + Glycerol Pentose PO 4 CO 2 shunt Glucose

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Propionate Utilization Absorbed through rumen divider 2-5% changed over to lactic corrosive by rumen enterocytes 95-98% goes to liver Converted to succinyl-CoA Then changed over to glucose

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Utilization of Propionate in Metabolism Propionate Propionate Propionyl CoA Methylmalonyl CoA CO 2 Succinyl CoA Glucose Krebs cycle 2 CO 2 Energy (18 ATP/mole)

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Utilization of butyrate Absorbed through rumen divider Used by rumen epithelial cells as a vitality source Largely changed over to ketones 80% changed over into -hydroxybutry