Rules for Making Reading-Writing Conections

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Composing: The Neglected

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Rules for Making Reading-Writing Conections Timothy Shanahan University of Illinois at Chicago shanahan@uic.edu www.shanahanonliteracy.com

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Of the "3 Rs," composing has been concurred the slightest consideration Notion has been that perusing is a broadly required aptitude, yet that composition is a tip top expertise The National Reading Panel did not look at composing research (however it considered auditing it) Writing: The Neglected "R"

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More than 90% of mid-vocation experts show that written work is critical in their work Writing is basic for achievement in advanced education, yet over half of school first year recruits have genuine composition issues Fewer than 30% of rudimentary and secondary school understudies meet NAEP's written work capability measures According to the National Commission on Writing…

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National Assessment

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Students can compose, yet they can't create composing at elevated amounts of ability, development, and refinement Few understudies can deliver exact, drawing in, and lucid exposition Fewer than a quarter can compose persuading, expounded reactions with convincing dialect According to NAEP…

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Given the prominent of perusing, composing must be viewed as relative perusing Writing and perusing rely on upon a typical center of information Writing requires further handling than perusing But by what means can perusing and composing be best joined for proficiency and viability? Perusing Writing Relationships

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Shanahan, T. (2008). Relations among oral dialect, perusing, and composing improvement. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of Writing Research (pp. 171-186). New York: Guilford Press. Tierney, R. J., & Shanahan, T. (1991). Inquire about on the perusing composing relationship: Interactions, exchanges, and results. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research (pp. 246-280). New York: Longman. Inquire about Sources

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Statistical investigations demonstrate that the connections amongst perusing and composing are bidirectional To completely abuse the connections, perusing and composing BOTH must be shown Writing direction and practice day by day and of adequate length to create quality essayists Principle 1: Teach both perusing and composing

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To expand proficiency learning and to exploit the connections crosswise over perusing and composing it is fundamental to educate both perusing and composing Since each school stresses perusing my accentuation here is on adding keeping in touch with the condition The following a few slides are about what we think about the instructing of composing

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Unfortunately, composing is not being shown NCLB did not require it State educational program do incorporate written work, but rather without much accentuation Efforts like Reading First made light of the part of writing to "secure" the place of perusing in the school day Status of composing guideline

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2-3 hours of day by day guideline in proficiency Word information (phonological mindfulness, letters, phonics, locate vocabulary, spelling, which means vocabulary) Fluency (exactness, rate, expression) Reading perception (imperative data, type/content structure, methodologies) Writing Chicago Reading Framework

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The P 3 A Writing Curriculum

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Best audit of composing guideline look into in the previous 20 years: Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). A meta-investigation of composing guideline for immature understudies. Diary of Educational Psychology, 99, 445–476. Investigate Review

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Synthesized comes about because of 123 trial and semi exploratory investigations of composing direction grades 4-12 Studies secured 11 distinctive ways to deal with the educating of composing Quality of composing was the result measure Graham & Perin Review

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Extended written work openings Writing for genuine gatherings of people Engaging in the written work handle High levels of understudy collaboration and proprietorship Personalized individual input and (maybe) some orderly guideline Approaches: Process-Writing

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Explicit Instruction

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Scaffolding

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Alternative Models

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Graham & Perin Results

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Process composing had direct impact on understudy writing in evaluations 4-6 when educators got proficient improvement, and no impacts in evaluations 7-12 Though linguistic use direction was not compelling in any review, it was the control amass treatment in everything except one of the reviews in this set Strategy guideline was successful over all review levels, yet greatest consequences for battling understudies Graham & Perin Results (cont.)

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Impossible to make significant inferences on content structure guideline (excessively couple of understudies, results excessively fluctuated, and so on .) Inquiry studies were altogether done at evaluations 7-12 and had little to-direct impacts All associate help examines had huge results (grades 4-12) Lots of unexplained changeability in size of impact for word preparing Graham & Perin Results (cont.)

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Many methodologies have sizable and solid effects on understudies' composition quality (technique educating best, however numerous different things work, as well) Combinations may be ideal: expressly show composing procedures, including understudies in companion direction, utilizing word processors, alongside a large number of the other littler impacts methodologies may justify incorporation Graham & Perin Conclusions

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Historically, guideline has regarded perusing as the empowering ability for composing National Early Literacy Panel (Pre-k and K) discoveries National Reading Panel (created spelling) Role of oral dialect Guideline 2: Begin ahead of schedule with both perusing and composing

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Because it is conceivable to draw profits by joining perusing and composing at an early stage, the accentuation here is on the best way to encourage early composition The following a few slides concentrate on the best way to draw in even extremely youthful preschoolers in oral sythesis And on the significance of urging children to compose early (not simply make) through "imagined spelling" The objective in these early years ought to be on familiarity

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Shared involvement with bunches of exchange (chance to assemble learning and to upgrade oral dialect) Children manage sentences about the mutual experience Teacher interprets the content Teacher peruses the content Children "read" alongside the instructor Children duplicate and delineate the story or article Language-Experience Approach

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sep taddebar bopy sek alls nubrs egliow fall grapo fes pan staps wel attept letl git scichtap adsavin ricet kd clic cidejches Invented spelling: Letter name

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Stage 1: Precommunicative Spelling Scribbles, letter-like structures, letters, numbers to speak to message May compose from left-to-right, ideal to-left, start to finish, or arbitrarily No comprehension of phoneme-grapheme connections May blend upper and lower case letters yet inclination is for capitalized Invented spelling

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Stage 2: Semiphonetic Spelling Shows consciousness of the alphabetic rule, that letters speak to sounds Uses curtailed one, two, or three letter spellings to speak to whole words Child utilizes letter-name methodology to speak to sounds Invented spelling

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Stage 3: Semiphonetic Spelling Represents all basic sound elements Uses specific spellings for long and short vowels, plural and past tense markers, and different parts of spelling Child picks letters on premise of sound, yet without respect for English letter groupings or different traditions Invented spelling

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Stage 4: Transitional Spelling Uses essential spelling traditions Begins to utilize morphological and visual data alongside sounds May incorporate every proper letter yet switch some May utilize substitute spellings for a similar sound in various words, yet just somewhat comprehends the tenets High rate of exact spellings Invented spelling

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Stage 5: Correct Spelling Applies fundamental principles of the English spelling framework Growing precision with quiet consonants, twofold consonants before attaches Can perceive that a word doesn't look right Spells sporadic spelling designs effectively Can spell a substantial number of words Invented spelling

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Difficulties in preparing content as a peruser or composing adequate sums as an essayist Fluency ought to be an early objective Peter Elbow's work on killing your manager (restrain the measure of early altering) Writing marathons Fluency guideline

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Research demonstrates that youthful kids' composition quality, amount, and inspiration are restricted by penmanship Some guideline in how to print or compose cursive are useful to organization Spelling innovations are a valuable procedure, yet these developments depend on understudy information from perusing, phonics, spelling direction Handwriting and spelling

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Memory has a tendency to be capacity particular Teaching can help understudies to sum up or to apply in different settings To do this guideline ought to highlight models of clear associations amongst perusing and composing And direction ought to energize reflection on perusing composing associations Guideline 3: Make perusing composing associations unequivocal

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Writing copying abstract models Select content with solid structure or style (design books work incredible with more youthful kids, more inconspicuous—yet at the same time clear–structures for more established understudies) Read content to understudies to understudies Discuss the example Provide an auxiliary incite or edge Group writing to begin Read/compose comparative writings (handle talks) Text structure

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"Shriek, Mary, shriek, And you might have a dairy animals." "I can't shriek, Mother, Because I don't know how." "Shriek, Mary, shriek, And you should have a … Pattern composing

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"Shriek Mary, shriek, and you might have a cow." _______ ________, ________, verb name verb and you should have

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