Rhino Sustenance Overhaul AAZK, 2005

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Pregnancy changes in eating regimen. Sicknesses with Possible Nutritional Links ... Best to adjust edibility of eating regimen expanding search and/or vegetable scrounge ...

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Rhino Nutrition Update AAZK, 2005

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Rhino TAG Nutrition Advisory Group Ellen Dierenfeld, Chair (Sumatran) Marcus Clauss, Univ Zurich (Black) Michael Schlegel, Disney (White) Kerrin Grant, Utah State (Asiatic)

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Q/A from Zookeeper Survey (on account of Dawn Strasser!!) New healthful concerns Doses of vitamin E; how regularly assess Update on White Oak pellet sustain concentrate on Tannins for restricting iron – encourage think about Forages: timothy versus Hay Browse – period of time to nourish out and still keep up dietary/improvement esteem; if root on plant, corrupts less?

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Q/A from Zookeeper Survey (on account of Dawn Strasser!!) Specific nourishments NOT to sustain? Perpetual ryegrass staggars D danger? Pregnancy changes in eating regimen

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Diseases with Possible Nutritional Links - Black Rhino Hemosiderosis - mineral uneven characters Hemolytic weakness - vitamin E, antiox Ulcerative dermatitis - glucose, amino corrosive, unsaturated fat, mineral irregular characteristics Peripheral vasculitis (IHV) - vitamin C, antiox, minerals, unsaturated fats Overall weakened resistant capacity

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Research Updates: Mineral Survey, Tissues & Blood Novel Antioxidant Metabolism Tannin Binding Salivary Proteins Intake trials in Indian Rhinos Field Studies: Vitamin E & Fatty Acids in Native Browses Serum Vitamin E in Rhinos in South Africa Field Ecology Studies – South Africa, Namibia New Initiatives

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Minerals in Rhinos E.S. Dierenfeld (St. Louis), S. Atkinson (Muskingum College), A.M. Craig (Oregon State), K.C. Walker (Oregon State), W.J. Streich (Berlin) & M. Clauss (Zurich) Zoo Biology 24:51-72 (2005)

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Mineral Highlights Serum/plasma Zoo blacks (n=34); Free-extending (n=27) Zoo whites (n=3-16); Free-running (n=5) Indian (n=3), Sumatran (n=3) Liver (21 blacks, 6 whites, 2-4 Indian & Sumatran) Horse a decent model of digestion system Rhinos 'er blood Ca & Se (hostage just); low Na contrasted with equids Browsers high Fe (blood & liver) Browsers low Cu (liver) – slow eaters high Liver K, Mg, Co, & Mo with age

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Iron Issues – Browsing rhinos Captives & females higher

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Iron Issues – Browsing rhinos Females higher, both genders increment with age

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Linked with low tannins? Antiox, expanded accessibility of iron yet not exclusively consume less calories Lack of fiber? Additionally can build Fe bioavail – once more, dissolvable CHO might be vital Influence of dietary vitamin C? (citrus impact suspicious - local peruses likely high) Iron Issues – Browsing Rhinos

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Mineral Interactions

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Elevated Free Tyrosine in Rhinoceros Erytrhocytes Weber, B.W., D.E. Paglia, E.H. Harley Comp Biochem Physiol 138:105-109 (2004)

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Tyrosine in rhinoceros RBCs (yet not plasma) 50-overlay higher than people Also lifted in other Perissodactyla Captives fundamentally bring down contrasted with free-extending; likewise variety crosswise over species Function as cell reinforcement?

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Tannins & Rhinos M. Clauss, Munich (now Zurich); J. Gehrke, J. Fickel, & M. Lechner-Doll, Berlin; E.J. Flach, Whipsnade; E.S. Dierenfeld, WCS (now St. Louis); J.- M. Hatt, Zurich Comp Biochem Physiol 140:67-72 (2005)

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Salivary tannin-restricting proteins (TBP) identified with dietary propensities – programs most elevated Compared salivation tests from nibbler (white, n=9), program (dark, n=10), and blended (Indian, n=8) nourishing propensities Used hydrolyzable (tannic corrosive) & consolidated (quebracho arrangement) tannin sexually transmitted diseases Tannin-Binding Salivary Proteins in 3 Rhino Species

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Black rhino – bound both H & CT >> white Indian bound H = dark, CT >> dark Difference between dark & white expected, comes about because of Indian may demonstrate developmentally late change from perusing Tannin-Binding Salivary Proteins in 3 Rhino Species Results… … ..

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Related to dietary propensities – programs most elevated Black rhinos eat tannins in nature – regular dietary propensities may profit by inducible system. Six creatures (3 offices) nourished 3 mo: Regular eating routine Diet + 5% tannic corrosive pellet Diet + 5% quebracho pellet Tannin-Binding Salivary Proteins Inducible in Black Rhinos

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Significant in tannic corrosive restricting limit with both tannic corrosive and quebracho encouraging n.s. slant for change in quebracho-restricting limit with quebracho encouraging; no change with tannic corrosive bolstering Hydrolyzable tannins assume a more prominent part in local environment of rhino? HT >> CT at iron authoritative? Continuous trials both in Europe & the US, with Fe adjust Induction of Tannin-Binding Salivary Proteins … . Cont.

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Indian Rhino Nutrition: Zoo Study M. Clauss, C. Polster, E. Kienzle, H.Wiesner, K. Baumgartner, F. von Houwald, W.J. Streich, E. S. Dierenfeld Zoo Biology 24:1-14 (2005)

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Aims of the Study Chronic foot issues, leiomyomas – connected with overabundance body weight? Admission, Digestion contrast between zoo diets (Nürnberg, n=2; München, n=2; Zurich, n=3; Bronx, n=4) Diets with or without concentrates M ineral (Ca) digestion system Water consumption

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Zoo Diets Nürnberg Grass feed, grass silage, pellets, Fruit & vegetable, mineral rolls Munich Grass feed, pellets, natural product & vegetable, mineral Basel Straw, pellets, feed cobs, organic product & vegetable Bronx Mixed feed, pellets, (negligible) create

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Particle Passage & Dry matter admission

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Dry Matter Digestibility

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Dry Matter Digestibility & Crude Fiber

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Results: expended 0.5-1.1% of body weight (DMI) every day absorbable vitality 0.27-0.99 MJ DE/kg BW 0 .75 (contrasted and est. reqt. 0.49-0.66) 64% (7 of 11) devoured more vitality, even on roughage-just eating routine Water admission 30-49 mL/kg BW day by day (~equid)

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Results: feed not obligatory eating routine is conceivable BUT mineral &/or vitamin supplement required straw + think consume less calories: vitality arrangement comparable to feed just eating regimen May need to confine both focus & scrounge

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Ca-Metabolism in Rhinos Similar to steeds, rabbits not reliant on Vit D (?) Elimination: URINE Consequence: Ca-stones in bladder & kidney (reported in rabbits, stallions; never in rhino) Other minerals, like steeds

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Rhino Browse: Free-Ranging & Captive (n=12) (n=4) (n=44) (n=11)

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FORAGES FOR RHINOS: Best supplement proportion to copy peruse? More grass than vegetable – sol CHO (in grass) impt. ??? - needs examination Good quality grass scavenge & appropriate pellet (6:1) alone can meet upkeep reqts. Hay NOT considered peruse. Peruse can have enhancement esteem regardless of the possibility that supplement profiles not kept up. Corruption relies on upon supplement; don't know impact of roots – worth testing. Keep as satisfactory as could be expected under the circumstances.

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Lucerne (Alfalfa) can be Problematic High [ ] N, Ca, Mg Increased hindgut pH Very absorbable, changed section rate Salivary buffering issues, corrosive/base lopsided characteristics more common

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Mineral Imbalances Due to Improper Forages? Connected with lucerne (horse feed) sustaining – in both slow eaters & programs

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Grass Also Problematic? Grass staggars reported with perpetual ryegrass ( Bluett et al., NZ Vet J 52:48, 2004 ) Due to parasitic endophyte with alkaloids; restricted in leaf base (overgrazing) and seed heads (undergrazing) Clinically – tremors, laziness, staggar, crumple Test for lolitrem B (>1 mg/kg DM) or don't utilize pastures/feed containing enduring ryegrass with wild endophyte

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PREGNANCY DIETS (all rhinos): NO expanded need until last trimester & amid lactation Increased: Calorie needs (about twofold) protein reqts. (8-10 to 12-14%) Ca (0.3 – 0.5%) and P (0.2-0.3%) No different changes prescribed with equine model Best to modify absorbability of eating regimen – expanding peruse and additionally vegetable scrounge (includes protein and Ca), perhaps focused on concentrates - not twofold amounts as such because of physical impediments

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Plasma Vitamin E in Free-Ranging Black Rhinos Mean = 0.86 ug/ml; like different studies Ndondo et al., 2004 S Afr J Wild Rec 34:100-102

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Plasma Vitamin E in Free-Ranging Black Rhinos Clauss et al., 2002

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Plasma Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Black Rhinos Clauss et al., 2002

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Vitamin E Concentrations in Black Rhino Browses Ndondo et al., 2004 Dierenfeld et al., 1995 Ghebremeskel et al., 1991

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VITAMIN E: Recommended measurements (dietary levels) of vitamin E: Based on accessible data, guarantee all species devour diets containing no less than 50 IU/kg DM – up to ~200 IU/kg. Not measurements essentially, but rather if eat 1% of body mass, a 2000 kg dark will eat 20 kg DM X 50 IU = 1000 IU negligible. Assess at any rate every year

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Vitamin D Toxicity – an Isolated Problem in 2002 Manufacturer extremely responsive, no eating routine issue segregated Miller et al., outline, 2003

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Fatty Acids in Black Rhino Browses (South Africa) Seasonal move - expanded PUFAs (C18) in winter versus spring No association with vit E levels however vital for vit E retention Ndondo et al., 2004

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Evidence of FA Deficiency in Black Rhinos Browse sythesis (Zimbabwe & NA calm spp.) Fresh peruse - a-linolenic (n-3) 15X >> linoleic (n-6); quick oxidation Zoo versus unfenced eating regimen - linoleic 5X, linolenic 1/3 Grant et al., 2002, J. Wildl. Dis.; Wright, 1998

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Clinical reaction to dietary FA supplementation Adding flax-based supplement modified w - 3: w - 6 proportions positively Zoo eat less - inverse consequences for proportion Suedmeyer & Dierenfeld, 1998 Adipose tissue FA [ ] as measure of long haul count calories impacts 25% of rhinos (n=20) inadequate in C18:2 (linoleic); >50% imperceptible C18:3 (a-linolenic) No unfenced tissue tests as gauge Fatty Acid Investigations - Zoo Rhinos: Short-& Long-Term Dierenfeld & Frank, 1998 .: