Remote Detecting Meteorological Satellites Connected to Earth Surface Perception

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Remote Sensing Meteorological Satellites Applied to Earth Surface Observation. Meteorological Satellites (Metsats). Coarse spatial determination, high transient determination NOAA, GOES, and DMSP . 1. AVHRR. Progressed Very High Resolution Radiometer 1979 –

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Remote Sensing Meteorological Satellites Applied to Earth Surface Observation

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Meteorological Satellites (Metsats) Coarse spatial determination, high worldly determination NOAA, GOES, and DMSP

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1. AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer 1979 – Designed as climate sensors on NOAA satellites Become progressively well known for land situated applications exercise/spacebrn.htm

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AVHRR Orbits Sun-synchronous Inclination 98.9 o 833km height Swath 2400km cross track

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June 26, 2000 spreads European Russian eastbound into Siberia. East Coast on September 27, 1997:

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Spectral Resolution   -band1: 0.58-0.68microm (red)   -band2: 0.72-1.10microm (close infrared)   -band3: 3.55-3.93microm (mid infrared- thermal)   -band4: 10.30-11.3microm (thermal)*   -band5: 11.50-12.5microm (thermal)*

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Resolutions 10 bits, 1024 levels of splendor Spatial determination -1.1km Local Area Coverage (LAC) -4 km worldwide Area Coverage (GAC) Temporal determination: day by day                  

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Data Low cost Public space disseminated by NOAA

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Vegetation Indices Vegetation Index (VI):         NIR-Red Normalized contrast vegetation record (NDVI)         NDVI = (NIR-Red)/(NIR+Red)

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Spectral Reflectance Curve

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Vegetation Index

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GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites As a major aspect of worldwide system of metsats 70 o longitude separated far and wide, local information accessible since 1975 Geosynchronous, elevation 36,000km GOES East 75 o W, GOES-West 135 o W

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GOES East 75 o W

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GOES-West 135 o W

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GOES .. A full plate see A noticeable (day time) 0.55-0.70microm  4 warm band (day and night) 3.8-12.5microm 1km spatial determination for the unmistakable band, and 4,8,4,4km for the four warm groups, separately Data are circulated constant

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GOES View of South America

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3. DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Data were accessible to regular citizen clients since 1973 exercise/dmsp.htm

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3. DMSP  Sun-synchronous 0.4-1.1microm (unmistakable & NIR), 8-13microm (warm) An evening noticeable band, the populace outline, oil and gas fields, and backwoods fires 3km spatial determination

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4. Sea Monitoring Satellites Nimbus-7, 1978 – 1986 Carry Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) Swath 1566km Thermal Visible The Gulf of Mexico

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4. Radiance 825m spatial determination 6 groups  -noticeable groups: phytoplankton focus, suspended residue  -NIR: surface vegetation, arrive/water limit - warm: ocean surface temperature

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Color-coded temperature maps

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5. Earth Observing System (EOS) Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) formally called Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) NASA program    Terra (EOS-AM), 1999     Aqua (EOS-PM), 2002

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Five Sensors on Board Terra MODIS -Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-Radiometer ASTER -Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer CERES -Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System MISR -Multi-Angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer MOPITT -Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere

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MODIS MODIS, a profoundly enhanced successor to AVHRR Launched in 1999   Greater spatial determination, 250, 500, and 1000m 36 groups between 0.62-14.385 m 4096 radiometric determination 2-day interim

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MODIS Bands 1-2 0.62-0.876 m, 250m, Land/mists limits Bands 3-7 0.459-2.155 m, 500m, Land/cloud properties Bands 8-16 0.405-0.877 m, 1000m, Ocean shading/phytoplankton/biogeochemistry Bands 17-19 0.890-0.965 m, 1000m, Atmospheric water vapor

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MODIS Bands … Bands 20-23 3.660-4.080 m, 1000m, Surface/cloud temperature Bands 24-25 4.433-4.549 m, 1000m, Atmospheric temperature Band 26 1.360-1.390 m, 1000m, Cirrus mists Bands 27-29 6.538-8.700 m, 1000m, Water vapor

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MODIS Bands … Band 30 9.580-9.880 m, 1000m, Ozone Bands 31-32 10.780-12.270 m, 1000m, Surface/cloud temperature Bands 33-36 13.185-14.385 m, 1000m, Cloud best elevation

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A MODIS slanted view One of the critical EOS joint study projects is the Indian Ocean Experiment.

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MODIS Atmospheric appearance of pressurized canned products, much being the aftereffect of contamination Water vapor, notwithstanding when substantial mists are missing or scattered

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MODIS The chlorophyll content The fluorescent properties of the sea, which identify with microscopic fish content.

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ASTER Collaboration amongst US and Japan Consists of three instrument frameworks   VNIR: obvious and NIR                SWIR: short wave infrared   TIR: warm infrared 60km swath

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ASTER VNIR: unmistakable and NIR G,R,NIR, NIR; 15m, 8bits                SWIR: short wave infrared 5 groups in MIR; 30m, 8bits TIR: warm infrared 5 groups in warm; 90m, 12bits

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ASTER Volcanoes in the Andes mountain chain of South America

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Aqua Complement Terra perceptions by giving information later in the day Launched in 2002 Designed to acquire data of climate and sea 6 instruments on board including MODIS

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Six Sensors on Board Aqua MODIS CERES AMSR/E - Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS AMSU - Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit AIRS - Atmospheric Infrared Sounder HSB - Humidity Sounder for Brazil

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Aqua Improved ocean surface and brilliance temperatures on June 2-4

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Aqua Sea surface temperature in tropical storm back road. This false shading composite picture is made utilizing information accepted by AMSR-E EOS, May 2002.

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5. SeaWiFS Sea-seeing Wide-Field-of-View Sensor NASA contracted with Orbital Science Corp. propelled on OrbView-2 Designed to study sea biogeochemistry exercise/orbview2.htm

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5. SeaWiFS 8 groups between 0.402-0.885 m 1.1km spatial determination 2800km swath Chlorphyll focuses (in red, yellow, and orange hues) on a close worldwide scale amid September, 1997.

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Readings Chapter 6

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3-D climatic maps created from multisensor perceptions, for example, the above three information sets. Here is the western Mediterranean (France on left and North Africa on right) with the base appeared as a scene picture, and climatic layers at 8 and 12 km appeared in hues with red the hottest and purples coolest.