Recorded Changes in Stay-at-Home Mothers: 1969 to 2009

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Recorded Changes in Stay-at-Home Mothers: 1969 to 2009 American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Atlanta, GA August 14-17, 2010 Rose M. Kreider, U.S. Registration Bureau Diana B. Elliott, U.S. Registration Bureau

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Background The homemaker is generally new idea: - Post WW II success gave occupations to wedded men and wages satisfactory to bolster a family - Cultural qualities concentrated on family, combined with stratified and gendered circles of work and family - Over the most recent 40 years, work of wedded ladies with youthful youngsters has been on the ascent

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Background The quit banter about: - Media outlets declared a developing pattern of high accomplishing wedded, working ladies "picking" to leave the work constrain to bring up kids - Probably not a decision, but rather a consequence of the battles to adjust work and family - Recent information demonstrate housewives are not principally high accomplishing experts, but rather are regularly remote conceived, Hispanic, and more youthful ladies with less instruction

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Research needs The social and authentic changes in the course of the most recent 40 years propose that notwithstanding the decrease in the extent of wedded moms who remain at home, their identity has likewise changed – it's a more particular gathering now. There is a requirement for a recorded comprehension of who housewives were and their identity now, in respect to other wedded ladies with youngsters who are in the work drive.

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Research questions How has the extent of hitched moms who remain at home changed since 1969? With a lower extent of wedded ladies with kids remaining home as of late, how would they contrast from their non-stay-at-home partners? How has the arrangement of this gathering changed in the course of the most recent 40 years?

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Data and Methods Data: March supplement of the Current Population Survey (CPS), otherwise called the Annual Social and Economic Supplement- - ASEC (1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009) Sample: Married couples (that incorporate the householder) with possess kids under 15 in the family

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Data and Methods Definition of homemakers (DV): Those wives report's identity out of the work drive all last year while their husbands report being in the work constrain all last year (at least 50 weeks)

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Data and Methods Independent factors: Wife's qualities : Age, Education, Race, Hispanic cause, Nativity Couple attributes : which life partner has more training Household attributes : Female grown-up relative present, number of kids under 5 introduce

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Data and Methods Analysis: Descriptive table shows housewives qualities contrasted with different moms for every decade Logistic models foresee the probability of being a housewife after some time with primary impacts and communications by year of overview.

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Percent of wedded couple family units with housewives: 1969 to 2009 Source: Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009

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Percent of stay-at-home and different moms who are age 15 to 24: 1969 to 2009 Source: Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009

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Percent of stay-at-home and different moms who have not exactly a secondary school degree: 1969 to 2009 Source: Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009

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Percent of stay-at-home and different moms who have a four year college education or more: 1969 to 2009 Source: Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009

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Percent of stay-at-home and different moms who were Hispanic: 1979 to 2009 Source: Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009

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Percent of stay-at-home and different moms who were outside conceived: 1999 and 2009 Source: Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1999, 2009

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Percent of stay-at-home and different moms who were Hispanic and remote conceived: 1999 and 2009 Source: Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1999, 2009

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Predicting whether wedded moms remain at home: Main impacts show 1969-2009 Smaller extent of homemakers in later years (yet chances proportions in 2009 are not as low as 1989 and 1999) More liable to be a housewife: - Woman has not exactly a HS training – 1.3x more inclined to remain home than those with a HS degree - Husband has more instruction – 1.2x more prone to remain home than the individuals who have same training - at least two youngsters under 5 – 2.8x more prone to remain home Source: Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009

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Predicting whether wedded moms remain at home: Main impacts display 1969-2009 Less liable to be a homemaker: - Under 35 years of age (.57 age 15-24; .81 age 25-34) - Bachelors or higher – more outlandish (.77) than those with HS degree - Black ladies – more improbable (.48) than White ladies - Wife has more instruction – more outlandish (.72) than couples with a similar level of training - Female grown-up relative present – more outlandish (.91) to remain home Source: Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009

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Predicting whether wedded moms remain at home: Main impacts demonstrate 1979-2009 Results for the 1979-2009 model are like those for the 1969-2009 model. - Hispanic ladies – 1.4x more inclined to remain home than White non-Hispanic ladies Source: Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009

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Predicting whether wedded moms remain at home: Interaction impacts show (1969 to 2009) Three discoveries of note: Age: in 1989, 1999, 2009, more youthful moms (age 15-24) more prone to remain home than more youthful moms in 1969 and 1979 Education: for 1979 and later, ladies with not exactly a secondary school degree will probably remain at home than those with not as much as HS in 1969. Hispanic : Relative to White non-Hispanic ladies, Hispanic ladies more inclined to remain at home in later decades than in 1979 Source: Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009

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Predicting whether wedded moms remain at home: Interaction impacts show (1969 to 2009) Couple/Household qualities: at least one youngsters under 5: Regardless of the study year, ladies with youthful kids will probably remain at home (1969-2009 model). Connection terms don't change the story. Spousal training differentials : In the model that controls for Hispanic, in 1999 and 2009, moms with more instruction than their spouses were more averse to remain home than comparative moms in 1979. Source: Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009

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Conclusion While the extent of wedded moms who were housewives declined essentially from 44 percent in 1969 to 26 percent in 2009, the relationship between homemakers and specific demographic, financial, and family compositional factors changed over this era so that the accompanying ladies now have higher chances of being a homemakers now than prior in the 20 th century: - more youthful; - less instructed; and - Hispanic. Source: Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009

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Contact Information Rose M. Kreider Fertility and Family Statistics Branch U.S. Statistics Bureau rose.kreider@census.gov Diana B. Elliott Fertility and Family Statistics Branch U.S. Evaluation Bureau diana.b.elliott@census.gov NOTE: The assessments in this paper depend on reactions from a specimen of the populace and may vary from real values as a result of testing changeability or different variables. Therefore, evident contrasts between the assessments for at least two gatherings may not be measurably critical. Every single similar proclamation have experienced measurable testing and are noteworthy at the 90-percent certainty level unless generally noted. Additional data about the source and precision of the assessments is accessible at: http://www.census.gov/apsd/techdoc/cps/cps-main.html

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