Rationale in School Program

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There will be tests (about at regular intervals toward the start of class), some ... Halle Berry is a film star. ( Premise 2) Therefore, Halle Berry is a VIP. ...

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﻿Rationale in School Program Creighton University Director: Dr. Jinmei Yuan ( jinmei@creighton.edu ) Student Teachers: Mark Holmberg Andrew Trapp Jason Bodewitz Elizabeth Epsen http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xrShK-NVMIU

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Overview Meet each week There will be tests (about at regular intervals toward the start of class), some homework assignments, tests, and in-class freebees/practices The tests could be unannounced We will let you know the test dates ahead of time

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Overview Part II Typical timetable every day: Journal practice Go over inquiries from homework/past class lesson (assuming any) Lesson Example issues/questions Assign homework issues/readings

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Class Notes Please raise your hand in the event that you have a question or wish to answer one of our own We need to urge everybody to get required in class, so regardless of the possibility that you're not certain of a response for example, still don't hesitate to attempt to reply – we are all adapting together 

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Lesson 1: Basic Concepts Arguments, Premises, and Conclusions Logic : the composed assortment of learning, or science, that assesses contentions Aim: to create arrangement of techniques to use as criteria for assessing contentions of others and for building our own; to decide great contentions from awful contentions Syllogistic rationale : created by Aristotle (384-322 B.C.); a sort of rationale in which the crucial components are terms , and contentions are assessed as great or terrible relying upon how the terms are organized in the contention Modal rationale : additionally by Aristotle, yet incorporates ideas, for example, probability, need, conviction, and uncertainty

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Arguments Argument : a gathering of articulations, at least one of which (premises) are guaranteed to give support to, or motivations to trust, one of the others (conclusions) Good contention: premises bolster the conclusion Bad contention: premises don't bolster conclusion (regardless of the possibility that they claim to)

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Arguments Made up of proclamations Statement: a sentence that is either valid (T) or false (⊥) Melatonin diminishes fly slack. (T) No spouses ever undermine their husbands. (⊥) Truth qualities (of an announcement) Many sentences, not at all like proclamations, can't be said to be T or ⊥ Questions (Where is Tom?) Proposals (Let's go to a motion picture.) Suggestions (I recommend you get contact focal points.) Commands (Turn off the TV.) Exclamations (Wow!)

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Statements Premises Statements that put forward the reasons or confirmation Conclusions Statements that the proof is guaranteed to bolster or infer (asserted to take after from the premises)

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Example of an Argument Good Argument: All film stars are big names. (Preface 1) Halle Berry is a film star. (Introduce 2) Therefore, Halle Berry is a superstar. (Conclusion) Bad Argument: Some film stars are men. Cameron Diaz is a film star. Along these lines, Cameron Diaz is a man.

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Conclusion Indicators Therefore Wherefore Thus Consequently We may gather Accordingly We may close It must be that For this reason So Entails that Hence It takes after that Implies that subsequently

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Premise Indicators Since As demonstrated by Because For In that May be induced from As Given that Seeing that For the reason that Inasmuch as Owing to Example: Expectant moms ought to never utilize recreational medications, since the utilization of these medications can endanger the improvement of the hatchling.

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Indicators Sometimes there are no pointers: (Also, a few entries that contain contentions contain articulations that are neither premises nor conclusions) The space program merits expanded consumptions in the years ahead. Not just does the national resistance rely on it, yet the program will more than pay for itself as far as mechanical spinoffs. Besides, at current subsidizing levels the program can't satisfy its foreseen potential.

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Argument Reconstruction Break up compound explanations Always list premises initially, then conclusions: P1: The national protection is reliant upon the space program. P2: The space program will more than pay for itself as far as mechanical spinoffs. P3: At current financing levels the space program can't satisfy its foreseen potential. C: The space program merits expanded consumptions in the years ahead.

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Inference & Proposition Inference : the thinking procedure communicated by a contention "Inference=Argument" Proposition : the importance or data substance of an announcement "Proposition=Statement"

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Homework Problems: Exercise 1.1 Pages 7-9, Numbers 1-21 Try these all alone; we will survey some next class Reading: Chapter 8 (Symbolic Logic) Pages 299-309