Racial Variations in Criminal Equity in Wisconsin: A Presentation to the Sentencing Commission

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Racial Disparities in Criminal Justice in Wisconsin: A Presentation to the Sentencing Commission Pamela Oliver

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Plan for the Talk National outline of detainment patterns 1926-1999 (snappy) Wisconsin review of detainment patterns 1926-1999 (generally speaking) and 1990-2003 (by offense) Interpreting incongruities: a diagram County inclines in jail sentences 1990-2003 Dane and Milwaukee Counties 1998-9: jail affirmations contrasted with captures, by offense assemble Sentence lengths: some VERY preparatory results

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National Trends: The Magnitude of the Problem

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Comparing International Incarceration Rates (Source: Sentencing Project)

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World Incarceration Rates in 1995: Adding US Race Patterns

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Nationally, The Black Population is Being Imprisoned at Alarming Rates Upwards of 40% of the Black male populace is under the supervision of the restorative framework (jail, imprison, parole, probation) Estimated "lifetime anticipation" of investing some energy in jail is no less than 29% for youthful Black men. Around 12% of Black men in their 20s are in jail, around 20% of every Black me have been in jail 7% of Black youngsters, 2.6% of Hispanic kids, .8% of White kids had a parent in jail in 1997 – lifetime anticipation much higher

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About Rates & Disparity Ratios Imprisonment and capture rates are communicated as the rate per 100,000 of the fitting populace Example: In 1999 Wisconsin new jail sentences 1021 Whites detained, White populace of Wisconsin was 4,701,123. 1021 ÷ 4701123 = .000217. Duplicate .00021 by 100,000 = 22, the detainment rate per 100,000 populace. 1,266 Blacks detained, Black populace of Wisconsin was 285,308. 1266 ÷ 285308 = .004437. Duplicate by 100,000 = 444 Calculate Disparity Ratios by separating rates: 444/22 = 20.4 the Black/White proportion in new jail sentence rates

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US Prison Admissions by Race

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The 1970's Policy Shift to determinate sentencing, higher punishments LEAA, expanded financing for police offices Crime turns into a political issue Drug war subsidizing offers motivating forces to police to create medicate captures & feelings Post-social equality post-riots focused race relations, race-coded political talk.?

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Imprisonment Has Increased While Crime Has Declined Imprisonment rates are an element of reactions to wrongdoing, not an element of wrongdoing itself Property violations declined consistently somewhere around 1970s and 2000 Violent wrongdoing declined unobtrusively by and large, with littler high points and low points in the period

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Crime Trends Source: Crunching Numbers: Crime and Incarceration toward the End of the Millennium by Jan M. Chaiken Based on Bureau of Justice Statistics information from National Crime Victimization Survey. Figures balanced for changed approach, shaded range marks change.

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Property Crime

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The Drug War Most of the expansion in Black detainment & detainment uniqueness is because of medication offenses. Medicate utilize rates have for the most part declined since the 1980s, while sedate detainments have expanded. Dark grown-up medication utilize rates are just marginally higher than White (see next outline), while their detainment rates for medications are colossal Among adolescents, Blacks utilize unlawful medications not as much as Whites, yet Black adolescents have much higher medication capture rates.

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Current Illicit Drug Use Among Adults (National Patterns) 6.6 percent for Whites 6.8 percent for Hispanics 7.7 percent for Blacks 10.6 percent for American Indian/Alaska Natives (this is generally pot, rates for different medications are lower than different races) 11.2 percent for people reporting various race 3.2 percent for Asians Source: 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse

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National Black Prison Sentences by Offense

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National White Prison Sentences by Offense

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National Black/White Disparity in Prison Sentences, by Offense

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These patterns have real social outcomes

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Offenders are parts of families & groups by far most of wrongdoers WILL GET OUT. Does jail help or hurt their probability of getting to be profitable individuals from society? Numerous have kids, and all have Families bear critical costs when a relative is detained both from lost procuring capability of the wrongdoer AND different costs (telephone calls, jail visits and so forth.) Even short jail terms create lifetime diminishments in acquiring limit Women are unwilling to wed men with jail records: adds to "single parenthood"

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Incarceration Exacerbates the Effects of Racial Discrimination Next few slides are from research by Devah Pager, new PhD from University of Wisconsin Sociology, now on personnel at Northwestern This was a controlled investigation in which coordinated sets of candidates connected for section level occupations promoted in Milwaukee daily papers

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Figure 4. The Effect of a Criminal Record on Employment Opportunities for Whites

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Figure 5. The Effect of a Criminal Record for Black and White Job Applicants

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Why Black Men's Incarceration Increases Black Child Poverty

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Social Conditions, Political Processes, Crime, and Corrections

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Changes in requirement administrations can have real impacts through framework criticisms

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Wisconsin Prison Admissions Including Detailed Time Trends 1990-1999/2003

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National & Wisconsin Imprisonment Rates

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Proportion of Admissions Involving New Sentences (1991-9)

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White Admissions Status Violation Only New Sentence Only Violation + New

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Blacks Admission Status Violation Only New Sentence Only Violation + New

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(Possible information coding changes after 2000?)

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New just in addition to (new + infringement)

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Trends by race in offenses First arrangement of graphs show slants in confirmations for all offenses for 1990s – difficult to see designs (fast) Second arrangement of outlines demonstrate that probation/parole renouncements were ascending in 1990s over all offense bunches (speedy) Rest of diagrams concentrate on new sentences to jail. More engaged for sentencing patterns.

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All jail confirmations joined (new sentences + infringement) Three-year midpoints in rates

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Admissions for probation & parole disavowals just

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New sentences. Two diagrams for every race. One is all new sentences, whether alone or with an infringement. The other is new sentence as it were. They are by and large quite comparable.

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Rising "Other" offenses are DUI, scattered lead, ignoring activity officer, kid bolster, escape, safeguard bouncing

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Age Patterns for Imprisonment

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Conclusions About Wisconsin Prison Admissions Huge racial abberations, particularly Black versus White Probation/parole violators coming back to jail were a noteworthy wellspring of the ascent in the 1990s Blacks demonstrated soak ascends in new sentences for medications, while Whites demonstrated no expansion White new sentences are basically for vicious offenses, with a late ascent in "other" Black new sentences are essentially for medication offenses. The Black/White difference is particularly high for youngsters and medication offenses

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Interpreting Disparity Data

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Steps to Incarceration

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Contributors to Disparity Statistical antiquities : rates ascertained on little populaces are unsteady and can be contorted by non-inhabitants. ��  Keep track of residency status in information. Fundamental rates of genuine culpable : particularly for genuine offenses, the majority of the divergence is because of rates of culpable. ��  Examine bigger issues of social imbalance, separation outside criminal equity framework. Separation (immediate or aberrant) in criminal equity framework : authorization, indictment, arbitration, and so on ��  Individual-level cognizant & oblivious bias System-level procedures that have unique impacts, particularly those corresponded with monetary standing however not genuine guiltiness. Inspect every part of the framework independently

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County Comparisons

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County Comparisons (1990s) Examine the 6 regions which have huge Black populace Are likewise the 6 regions which send the a great many people to jail Milwaukee, Dane, Kenosha, Racine, Rock, Waukesha "Adjust" is whatever is left of Wisconsin, outside these six provinces

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Compare Counties Whites New Sentences

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Compare districts Black, new sentences thick

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Compare Counties, New Sentences B/w proportion

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Compare regions, Whites infringement

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Compare Counties, Blacks Violations

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Compare Counties, Violations B/W proportion

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Counties: Offense & Race Trends New Sentences (All, incorporates joined with infringement)

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Milwaukee

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Dane

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County Drug Disparities by Time

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Kenosha

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Racine

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Rock

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Waukesha

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Wisconsin Balance (The Rest of the State) .:t

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