Psychological well-being Services: Legal and Ethical Issues

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Section 16 Mental Health Services: Legal and Ethical Issues

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Mental Health and the Legal System: An Overview Mental Health and the Legal System Guided by moral standards and state and government laws Shifting Perspectives on Mental Health Law; Two Eras Liberal (1960 to 1980) – Rights of rationally poorly commanded Neo-traditionalist (1980-onwards) – Limit privileges of patients The Issues The way of common versus criminal duty Balancing moral contemplations versus legitimate contemplations The part of clinicians in lawful matters Rights of patients and research subjects Practice measures and the advancement of psychological well-being consideration

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Civil Commitment: Overview, Criteria, and Oversight Authority Civil Commitment Laws Legal revelation of dysfunctional behavior When can a man be put in a healing center for treatment? Such laws and meanings of maladjustment differ by state General Criteria for Civil Commitment Person has a dysfunctional behavior and necessities treatment Person is perilous to self or others Grave handicap – Inability to look after self Governmental Authority Over Civil Commitment Police control – Health, welfare, and security of society Parens patriae – State acts a surrogate parent

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The Civil Commitment Process Initial Stages Person neglects to look for help other people feel that help is required Petition is made to a judge for the sake of the Individual must be advised of the dedication procedure Subsequent Stages Involve typical legitimate procedures by and large Should a man be submitted? This assurance is made by a judge

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The Concept of Mental Illness in Civil Commitment Proceedings Defining Mental Illness A lawful idea – Severe aggravations Not synonymous with a mental issue Definitions of dysfunctional behavior fluctuate by state Often avoided conditions incorporate Mental hindrance and substance-related scatters Dangerousness to Self or Others Central to duty procedures Assessing hazardousness The part of psychological wellness experts Knowns and questions about savagery and emotional instability

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Problems with the Process of Civil Commitment Early Supreme Court Rulings Restrictions on automatic responsibility A non-unsafe individual can't be carried out Need for treatment alone is insufficient Having a grave handicap is deficient Consequences of Supreme Court Rulings Criminalization of the rationally sick Increase in vagrancy Deinstitutionalization – Large psychiatric clinics shut Transinstitutionalization – Mentally sick to group mind Liberal Changes in Civil Commitment Procedures Followed

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Britain Bedlam

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Subsequent Modification to Civil Commitment Procedures Civil Commitment Criteria Were Broadened Involuntary duty For perilous and non-risky people For people needing treatment National Alliance of the Mentally Ill Argued for further changes

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Criminal Commitment: An Overview Nature of Criminal Commitment Accused of carrying out a wrongdoing Detainment in an emotional wellness office for assessment Focus on wellness to stand trial Found blameworthy or not liable by reason of craziness

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The Insanity Defense Nature of the Insanity Defense Plea – A Legal Statement Accused of not liable in view of madness at time of wrongdoing Defendant sent to a treatment office as opposed to jail Diagnosis of a confusion is not the same as madness Definitions of Insanity M'Naughten govern – Insanity barrier began here Durham lead – More comprehensive definition Mental sickness or deformity American Law Institute Standard Knowledge of right versus wrong Self-control Diminished limit

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Consequences of the Insanity Defense Public Misperceptions and Outrage John Hinckley Jr. found not liable by reason of madness half of states – Moved to abrogate the craziness barrier Public perspectives – Insanity guard is a legitimate escape clause Facts About the Insanity Defense Used in under 1% of criminal cases Spend additional time in mental doctor's facilities than in prison Changes Regarding the Insanity Defense Insanity resistance change act Movement back to M'Naughten-like measures Guilty yet rationally sick (GBMI) Allows for treatment and discipline

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Therapeutic Jurisprudence Overview Using information of conduct change To assist those in a bad position with the law "Critical thinking" Courts Address novel needs of individuals with particular issues Examples incorporate deferred sentencing under the condition the individual holds a vocation for six months

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Determination of Competence to Stand Trial Requirements for Competence Understanding of lawful charges Ability to help with one's own protection Essential for trial or lawful procedures Burden of verification is on the safeguard Consequences of a Determination of Incompetence Loss of basic leadership power Results in duty, yet with confinements

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The Role of Expert Witness in Civil and Criminal Proceedings The Expert Witness: Psychologists' Roles Person with specific learning and mastery Assist in competency judgments Assist in making dependable DSM analyze Advise the court Regarding mental evaluation and finding Assess malingering (i.e., faking indications)

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Patient's Rights: An Overview The Right to Treatment Cannot be automatically carried out without Treatment – Reduce manifestations and sympathetic care The Right to the Least Restrictive Alternative Treatment inside the slightest binding and constraining setting The Right to Refuse Treatment Often in cases including medicinal or tranquilize treatment Persons can't be compelled to wind up skillful for trial The Right to Confidentiality versus Obligation to Warn Confidentiality – Protect revelation of data Tarasoff and the Duty to Warn – Limits on classification

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Research Participant Rights: An Overview The Right to be Informed About the Research Involves educated assent, not just assent alone The Right to Privacy Right to be Treated with Respect and Dignity Right to be Protected from Physical and Mental Harm Right to Chose or to Refuse to Participate in Research Right to Anonymity in Report of Study Findings Right to Safeguarding of Records

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Clinical Practice Guidelines and Standards Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Efficient and financially savvy emotional wellness administrations Dissemination of important best in class data To experts and the overall population Establish clinical practice rules For evaluation and treatment American Psychological Association's Practice Guidelines Standards for clinical adequacy look into Standards for clinical utility (viability) examine

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Summary of Ethical and Legal Issues in Mental Health Services Societal Views and Laws About Mental Illness Have changed after some time Mental Illness Is a Legal Term, Not a Psychological Term Civil Commitment Is a Legal Processes Involves automatic responsibility Criminal Commitment Involves criminal conduct and dysfunctional behavior Involves capability, craziness, and criminal culpability Role of Mental Health Professionals in Legal Matters Rights of Patients and Research Subjects The Future of Mental Health Care