Prologue to Mobile Communications

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´╗┐Prologue to Mobile Communications TCOM 552, Lecture #1 Hung Nguyen, Ph.D. 28 August, 2006

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Chapter 10: Cellular Wireless Networks Cellular remote system outline issues First era simple (customary versatile communication benefit) Second era advanced cell systems Time-division numerous get to (TDMA) Code-division various get to (CDMA) Third era systems Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Chapter 2: Transmission Fundamentals Basic diagram of transmission themes Data correspondences ideas Includes methods of simple and computerized information transmission Channel limit Transmission media Multiplexing Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Chapter 6: Signal Encoding Techniques Wireless transmission Analog and computerized information Analog and computerized signals Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Chapter 5: Antennas and Propagation Principles of radio and microwave Antenna execution Wireless transmission modes Fading Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Chapter 8: Coding and Error Control Forward mistake amendment (FEC) Using repetition for blunder identification Automatic rehash ask for (ARQ) strategies Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Chapter 7: Spread Spectrum Frequency jumping Direct arrangement spread range Code division different get to (CDMA) Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Chapter 10: Cellular Wireless Networks Cellular remote system plan issues First era simple (conventional portable communication benefit) Second era advanced cell systems Time-division various get to (TDMA) Code-division various get to (CDMA) Third era systems Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Chapter 13: Wireless LAN Technology Overview of LANs and remote LAN innovation and applications Transmission procedures of remote LANs Spread range Narrowband microwave Infrared Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Chapter 12: Mobile IP and Wireless Access Protocol Modifications to IP convention to suit remote access to Internet Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) Provides versatile clients access to communication and data administrations including Internet and Web Includes remote telephones, pagers and individual computerized partners (PDAs) Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Chapter 11: Cordless Systems and Wireless Local Loop Cordless frameworks Wireless nearby circle (WLL) Sometimes called radio on the up and up (RITL) or altered remote get to (FWA) Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Chapter 10: Cellular Wireless Networks Cellular remote system plan issues First era simple (conventional versatile communication benefit) Second era computerized cell systems Time-division numerous get to (TDMA) Code-division various get to (CDMA) Third era systems Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Introduction to Wireless

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Wireless Comes of Age Marconi created the remote transmit in 1896 Communication by encoding alphanumeric characters in simple electromagnetic flag Sent transmitted flags over the Atlantic Ocean Communications satellites propelled in 1960s Before 1980's: remote innovation use Radio, TV, correspondence satellites, paging More as of late Cellular administrations began in mid 1980's in the US Wireless information at low rates accessible in the 1990's (e.g., ARDIS, Bell South), higher information rates in progress WLAN became an adult in late 1990's, WiFi hotspots Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Cellular/PCS Evolution Bell Labs proposes cell in 1968 First cell framework starts operation in mid 1980's utilizing simple (AMPS) framework, by ATT - First Generation frameworks (1G) - "Cell" These are called cell frameworks, in the 800 and 900 MHz extend generally. Vast, massive telephones Digital framework utilizing TDMA begins mid 1990's (2G) Both in 800 and 900 MHz, and around 1800 and 1900 MHz These, alongside GSM and CDMA underneath, marked PCS, when in the 1800 and 1900 MHz go Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Cellular/PCS Evolution (Cont'd) European GSM begins operation mid 1990's (2G) Similar recurrence run as TDMA however not precisely - US and Europe for the most part vary GSM utilized about around the world, a greater number of clients than US principles - in US Voicestream utilizes it First CDMA operation 1996-1997 - Qualcomm holds "key" licenses (2G) Used by half of 2G frameworks in US, S. Korea, parts of Latin America First (exceptionally) restricted 3G operation in Japan in May 2001-Wideband CDMA Worldwide (semi) institutionalization consented to in 1999, for information rate administrations to 2 Mbps Frequency allotment around 1800 MHz in the vast majority of world, US simply set 90 MHz 2.5G, as GPRS (GSM/TDMA) and 1XRTT (IS-95) out in 02 Some photos, higher information rates Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Mobile Comms - Anywhere/Anytime Personal Communications - Inexpensive utilization of cell and remote to convey anyplace, whenever - Personal: for individual utilize Cellular in 1983 was costly, PCS in 90's it got to be shabby, ordinary Terms: Wireless, Mobile, PCS, and so forth Comms for access to individuals (voice) and data (information, administrations) Essential Requirements Mobility >>> untethered >>> remote Mobility additionally implied having admittance to the system (the PSTN) - will go anyplace Personal (e.g., not simply corporate) >>> shoddy little terminals, modest administrations Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Mobile Comms - Anywhere/Anytime (cont'd) Essential Ingredients Infrastructure (Comms frameworks and systems) User terminals (for individual utilize) Standards (various frameworks need to interoperate) Spectrum (accessibility and utilize) Services (over the foundation) - From voice to advanced cells to information - esteem included Subscribers (enough to make it fiscally appealing) Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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CATEGORIES OF MOBILITY Mobile Untethered Portable Transportable In Building Wireless LAN Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Wireless Examples Mobile remote frameworks Cellular/PCS (Personal Communications Systems) Terrestrial microwave transmission Satellite transmission Broadcast radio and TV Fixed remote WLAN Paging Wireless Data Including email/Web/News/Video on individual units Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Limitations and Issues in Wireless Technologies Political and financial impediments influence remote innovations Spectrum confinements, framework costs, principles, legislative issues and approaches Spectrum is constrained, best bits assigned, costly - lawful/political 3G US range an issue, 90 MHz to be reallocated from DOD/MDS (requested more) NextWave purchased for $5B, bankrupt, FCC sold range for $16B, lost in court, still in suit, solicited to be calmed from obligation load Expensive framework (15K base stations) required for national scope Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Limitations and Issues in Wireless Technologies (cont'd) Standards advance gradually, require global accord, and include different contradictory variations - consistent wandering is not generally conceivable Telecom framework and industry are vital national strategy issues Current remote troubles: low market valuations because of extremely aggressive cell advertise, obligation loads, excessively numerous bearers, costly/constrained range, remote information develop is costly and unrewarding Technical Wireless proliferation is mistake inclined and drives complex radio gear Small gadgets for versatility, hard on innovation and battery Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Mobile Telephone & Internet Users Millions Mobile Telephone Users Internet Users Source: Ericsson Radio Systems, Inc. Year BUT: SLOWED DOWN, OVERHYPED, AND ARPU IS DOWN Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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137,458,902 current U.S. Remote Subscribers Aug. 24, 2002, 2AM, per CTIA From CTIA webpage http://www.wow-com.com/industry/details/studies/NOTE: Subscribers, Cell Sites, ARPU Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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From CTIA site Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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From CTIA site Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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From CTIA site Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Other Wireless Status Data Wireless organizations advertise top March 2000 - $794B March 2001 - $265B Wireless industry cutbacks, Dec.2000-Jan2002: 352,000 Wireless endorsers as yet developing, however slower Sales in one year time frame expected at 540 million handsets down to under 400 million, universally DOCOMO (Japan) keeps on including supporters, including iMode (Internet) accounts - ARPU is $71.86, much higher than in US China to have 132 million remote clients by the end of2001, a pick up of 46.4 million over a year prior to, second to the US, Europe around 100 million - Asia Pacific greatest development region Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Nokia 3G Concept Phone - Where Cellular Might Be Going - Nokia idea telephone, from http://www.3g-generation.com/index.htm Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Mobile Wireless Data Services Mobile informing, two way paging, email/news e.g., Motorola 2-way, Blackberry RIM, other particular administrations Mobile PDA construct information Currently in light of WAP empowered telephones (informing, news, sports, remote Internet guarantee) iMode in Japan - better/speedier, developing use SMS in view of GSM in Europe - informing Coming: GPRS-based and 1xRTT-based administrations to few 10's Kbps - remote Internet, email, pictures, and so on Later higher with EDGE, and to 2 Mbps with 3G (Europe Japan to start with, later in US) - 3G will do all administrations above in addition to voice and video all the while WLAN - WiFi spreading like an infection, numerous open AP's Some say it will do VOIP, go portable/wide-range, get rid of 3G Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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Public WLAN Service: Mobile Operators Must not Miss the Boat (#IN020286MD) Hung Nguyen, TCOM 552, Fall 2006

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