Prologue to Insects: Structure, Function, Development and Feeding Behavior

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Prologue to Insects: Structure, Function, Development and Feeding Behavior Thomas J. Weissling Assistant Professor of Entomology University of Florida Fort Lauderdale Research

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THE INSECTS Fossil records show creepy crawlies ashore more than 300 million years back - mid paleozoic

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Insects are from an antiquated heredity that included trilobites and shellfish which were bottomless in the seas more than 500 million years prior. Trilobites are wiped out: yet we are encompassed by shellfish… a large portion of which are oceanic. Bugs imparted the earthly territory to different relatives, for example, arachnids, ticks, parasites, and scorpions.

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Insects are in the phylum Arthropoda. This gathering contains creatures that share the accompanying qualities: 1) Body portioned, the sections typically assembled in a few rather particular locales

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2) Paired fragmented members (from which the phylum gets its name)

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3) Bilateral symmetry

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4) A chitinous exoskeleton, which is occasionally shed and recharged as the creature develops University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Department of Entomology, Leon Higley

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5) A tubular nutritious trench, with mouth and rear-end

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6) An open circulatory framework, the main vein for the most part being a tubular structure dorsal to the wholesome channel with horizontal openings in the stomach area 7) The body cavity a blood hole or hemocoel, the coelom lessened

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8) The sensory system comprising of a front ganglion or cerebrum situated over the wholesome waterway, a couple of connectives reaching out from the mind around the nutritious channel, and combined ganglionated nerve lines situated beneath the nutritious trench

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9) The skeletal muscles striated 10) Excretion ordinarily by method for tubes (the Malpighian tubules) that exhaust into the nutritious trench, the discharged materials going to the outside by method for the butt

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11) Respiration by method for gills, or tracheae and spiracles 12) The genders almost constantly isolated

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The arthropoda is separated into 4 littler gatherings called classes: Crustacea 10+ legs, 2 body districts, mandibles, 2 sets of recieving wires, no wings Myriapoda 1-2 sets of legs for each fragment, 2 body areas, mandibles, 1 sets of reception apparatuses, no wings Arachnida (Chelicerata) 8 legs, 2 body locales, chelicerae, no radio wires, no wings Insecta 6 legs, 3 body areas, mandibles, 1 sets of recieving wires, 0, 2, or 4 wings

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The Arachnida (Chelicerata) have no radio wires and the mouthparts are chelicerae which are not homologous to the mouthparts of creepy crawlies. They are a 8-legged gathering in a developmental line that separated from the creepy crawlies in the mid-paleozoic

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The Myriapoda (centipedes, millipedes, and so on.) have recieving wires, mandibles, maxillae and tracheal framework however have just two body locales, and they include fragments as they shed (anamorphosis)

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In the early myriapod genealogy, certain gatherings showed up in which sections and legs were not included at shedding (epimorphic). Legs were held on the three fragments behind the head, and the rest of the body included just 11 portions When the three sections with legs got to be equipped for moving the animal, whatever is left of the body turned out to be more specific (for multiplication, viseral capacities, and so forth.) Ended up with three body areas.

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At slightest ½ of the creatures at present possessing the earth are creepy crawlies (roughly 1.5 million unique species)

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Of all bug species on the planet Less than 1% Considered to be irritations Beneficial or not thought to be vermin (> 99%)

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Eat about anything conceivable, involve about each comprehensible specialty

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Why are bugs so fruitful? Have wings… dispersive Diverse mouthparts

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Relation of creepy crawlies to people: 1. Valuable: (Pollination, Honey, Beeswax, silk [65-75 million pounds delivered annually], shellac, colors, separate crude materials, circulate air through soil, biocontrol of weeds and awful bugs, human nourishment, medication & surgery [cantharidin (Spanish fly-rankle creepy crawly), bee venom for joint pain, blow fly hatchlings (larva therapy)], research creature 2 . Stylish Value : adornments, pets, pleasant to take a gander at 3. Harmful: plants, put away nourishments, woods, textures, humans and creatures

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Proper recognizable proof is fundamental in vermin administration

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The Insects 1. Three, generally particular body locales (head, thorax, and stomach area) 2. One sets of fragmented radio wires 3. Normally have one sets of compound eyes 4. Three sets of sectioned legs, one sets on each of the three thoracic portions 5. For the most part with two sets of wings, some have stand out combine (i.e., flies) or no wings by any means.

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The Head. The creepy crawly head serves various capacities, for example, sustaining and tactile recognition.

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The Thorax. The thorax is principally in charge of movement. Comprised of 3 fragments, the prothorax, mesothorax, and metathorax. A couple of legs emerge from every section. Wings, if introduce, emerge from meso-, and meta-thorax.

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The Abdomen is in charge of discharge, and proliferation.

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Metamorphosis. The procedure of progress from egg to grown-up. Fragmented or slow transformation . The immatures, or "sprites" seem to be like the grown-ups (grasshoppers, aphids, cockroaches).

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Complete transformation . The immatures, or hatchlings look not at all like the grown-up. The hatchlings go through a pupal stage to change into the grown-up frame (wasps, insects, moths, butterflies, flies).

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Development Molting (and control of shedding)… IGR's (Insect Growth controller) Diapause/Estivation (abating of movement) Reproduction: sexually, parthenogenetically (A type of propagation in which an unfertilized egg forms into another individual, happening normally among creepy crawlies and certain different arthropods). Mating (mate discovering) Oviposition-procedure of laying eggs (fruitfulness versus fruitfulness – the capacity to imitate)

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Feeding Plant-feeders, blood-feeders, parasites, scroungers… to give some examples

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Types of Injury Insects Cause to Plants 1. Stand Reducers (i.e. cutworms): create a prompt misfortune in plant biomass bringing about diminished photosynthesis. Impacts are administered by bug number, and timing of harm

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2. Leaf-Mass Consumers (i.e. grasshoppers): Leaf utilization is for the most part thought to straightforwardly influence total photosynthesis of the overhang.

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3. Acclimatize Sappers (i.e. Aphids): Insects for the most part with penetrating/sucking or grating mouthparts. Tend to evacuate plant starches and supplements after carbon is taken up however before it is changed over to tissue.

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4. Turgor Reducers (i.e. Citrus root weevil hatchlings): Are by and large root and stem feeders that influence plants water and supplement adjust. Extreme diminishments in water take-up results in diminished turgor which diminishes the extension of new leaves, stems and organic product. What's more, photosynthesis can be diminished.

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5. Natural product Feeders (i.e. Codling moth): bolstering on organic products for the most part results in direct demolition of harvestable deliver which influences quality, yield or both. Yield misfortunes are not generally corresponding to the harm.

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6. Engineering Modifiers (i.e. lodging, corn rootworm hatchlings): Results in morphological changes in plant engineering. Can bring about diminishment of physiological and also harvestable yield. Additionally bother shaping creepy crawlies.

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Author: Tom Weissling, University of Florida Photos: University of Florida University of Nebraska University of California Entomology And Nematology Department Copyright University of Florida 2000 For more nitty gritty data see the Featured Creatures WWW site at