Prologue to Cognitive Science Philosophy

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Prologue to Intellectual Science Theory. Nov 2005 :: Address #1 :: Joe Lau :: Theory HKU. Points throughout today. The part of theory in intellectual science A brief history of subjective science Philosophical hypotheses of the psyche. One week from now. The PC model of the psyche

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Prologue to Cognitive Science Philosophy Nov 2005 :: Lecture #1 :: Joe Lau :: Philosophy HKU

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Topics for now The part of theory in psychological science A short history of subjective science Philosophical speculations of the brain Next week The PC model of the mind Challenges to the PC demonstrate

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Why logic? Approach of logic - thinking Logic and applied examination Not experimentation. Intellectual Science is a science. So why is reasoning applicable to psychological science?

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The significance of reasoning Systematic portrayal Making things clear, orderly, and consistent. Clarify the essential ideas and suppositions. Clarifying portrayal, awareness, and so on. Portray the comprehensive view. What is intellectual science? Basic reflection Evaluate tests and contentions. Productive hypothesis Propose speculations and ideas.

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Cognitive science again Cognitive science = Science of the mind Features Different ranges – discernment, dialect, … Different levels – errand, portrayal and calculation, equipment execution Inter-disciplinary Computational clarifications of data handling

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Before intellectual science Philosophers Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hume, Kant, … The start of brain research Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) First brain science lab William James (1842-1910) The Principles of Psychology

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Emergence of psychological science (1950s) Reaction to behaviorism in brain research Pavlov, Skinner, Thorndike, Watson, and so on. What is behaviorism? Logical brain research ought to concentrate just on noticeable conduct. Conduct to be clarified regarding molding.

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The continuous "subjective insurgency" Rejection of behaviorism in brain research Psychological clarifications must consider inside mental states that are not straightforwardly noticeable. George Miller (1956) "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two" Chomsky (1957) Syntactic Structures Chomsky (1959) "A Review of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior " The begin of present day registering and AI Mathematical meaning of calculation (Turing, Church, … ) Electronic PCs - The start of AI John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell, Herbert Simon Developments in neurophysiology Brain capacities and data handling in neurons Penfield, Hubel and Wiesel, Sperry, Melzack and Wall

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Necessity of interdisciplinary research Philosophy Emotions and states of mind Emotions and objectivity Psychology How feelings influence choices Linguistics Emotional words in various societies Neurophysiology Emotions and hormones The impact of cerebrum harm

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http://www.hku.hk/fmri/

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Topics for now The part of reasoning in subjective science A short history of intellectual science Philosophical hypotheses of the psyche

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What is the brain? Mind = the subject of mental states. What are mental states? Deliberate mental states Examples: convictions and goals Mental states with substance. Feelings Anger, envy, … Bodily sensations Pains, tingles, … Perceptions Seeing a tree, hearing a sound, … Commonality Either deliberate or cognizant.

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Substance dualism The brain = a profound substance. Just a spirit can have mental states. Creatures are oblivious machines. Inspiration: eternality & religious convictions. Three issues with dualism Evidential issue Any proof for the presence of the spirit? Causal association issue Mental states cause and are brought on by physical states. How does the spirit interface with the mind? Informative issue The spirit does not help us clarify the way of the brain.

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Materialism/Physicalism The psyche is a physical framework. Mental states are physical states. Torment = enactment of territory X of the mind. Two variants of physicalism Token physicalism Every mental state token is a physical state token. Sort physicalism Every mental state sort is a physical state sort.

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what number letters are there in the container? An A

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Type versus Token physicalism Token physicalism Joe's conviction that 1+1=2 at twelve = movement of territory An of Joe's cerebrum at twelve. Subside's conviction that 1+1=2 at 3pm = movement of territory B of Peter's cerebrum at 3pm. Sort physicalism The conviction that 1+1=2 = action of mind zone X. Sort physicalism and various acknowledgment Is the personality explanation valid for each animal with that conviction?

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Functionalism Mental state sorts are characterized by utilitarian part. A mental state token of sort T is the physical express that is the tenant of part T. Part and inhabitant The triumphant ticket = (Roughly) A ticket whose proprietor is qualified for get a prize in some opposition, draw, or diversion. Torment in people can be physically not the same as torment in different creatures conviction despite the fact that they assume a similar part. Characterized by ordinary circumstances and end results.

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Functionalism connected to torment X has torment = X is in an express that is regularly brought on by substantial harm or unsettling influences, which causes evasion conduct and the conviction that one is in agony, and the yearning to wipe out the torment.

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The PC model of the mind How is it identified with functionalism?

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The PC model of the mind Weak adaptation - Computations are vital for clarifying mental procedures. The brain has a computational level of portrayal. Solid rendition - Computations are fundamental and adequate for clarifying mental procedures. Suggestion - The correct sort of calculation will be adequate for the presence of a psyche.

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A journey rocket Computations essential For independently directed route. Calculations adequate?

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Functionalism about the mind Strong form of the PC display Computations are vital and adequate for having a brain. Mental state sorts are characterized by their part in a program/utilitarian association. Program For F = 1 to 10 Print F Next F

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Implications of functionalism Computational replicating is adequate for mental duplication. On the off chance that X is computationally the same as Y, and X has a brain, then Y likewise has a psyche. Material execution is not specifically important for having a psyche. It doesn't make a difference what Y is made of, the length of the calculations can be executed in the equipment.

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Chinese Nation case Ned Block (1978) "Issues with Functionalism"

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