# Presentation of Thermal

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﻿Presentation of Thermal GGT/RE – Environment Test Team

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Primary Mechanic of Heat Transfer Thermal vitality transport: cause by temperature contrast, high T - > low T Conduction Heat exchanging by strong medium Convection Transferring vitality between strong surface and liquid Mass transport Natural (free) convection Forced convection Radiation Heat exchanging by electromagnetic waves

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Conduction Fourier " s Law Q= - KA Δ T/Δ L Q: warm exchange rate A: cross-sectional range of warmth flux Δ T/Δ L: temperature inclination K: warm conductivity (W/mk) Ex. Al = 230 Cu = 380 Mylar = 1.8

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Convection Newtonian cooling Law Qc = hc As (Ts – Ta) Qc: convection warm exchange rate As: surface region Ts: surface temperature of strong Ta: tmperature of encompassing hc: warm exchange coefficient, f(flow sort, body geometry, physical property, temperature, speed, consistency … ) Natural convection & Forced convction hc of air, regular convection: 0.0015~0.015 W/in 2 ℃ constrained convection: 0.015~0.15 W/in 2 ℃

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Radiation Qa = εσ AF 1-2 ( Ts 4 – Ta 4 ) Qa: radiation warm exchange rate ε : emissivity, 0 ≦ ε ≦ 1 σ : Stefan-Boltzmann consistent A: surface zone F 1-2 : see consider Ts: temperature of body s Ta: temperature of body a

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Thermal Resistance R = V/I V: voltage = Δ T: temperature distinction I: current = Q: warm Conduction R k = Δ L/KA k Convection Rs = 1/h c As Radiation Ra = (Ts – Ta)/εσ AF 1-2 ( Ts 4 – Ta 4 )

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Basic Concepts for NB Thermal Design Thermal Design Target Thermal outline must meet warm spec. of CPU, every key part (HDD, FDD, CD-ROM, PCMCIA … ), and all IC chips (Chipset, VGA, RAM, PCMCIA … ), and all IC chips (Chipset, VGA, RAM, Audio … ) in every client conditions Thermal Resistance Θ j-a = (Tj – Ta)/Pcpu Θ j-a : CPU intersection to surrounding warm resistance Tj: CPU intersection temperature Ta: encompassing temperature Pcpu: CPU control

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Basic Concepts for NB Thermal Design System Thermal Coupling impact Θ j-a = (Tj – Ta – Tsys)/Pcpu Tsys: framework temperature = Psys * Θ = Σ Pi* θ i , (i: DRAM, Chipset, HDD, FDD, CD-ROM … ) R: warm coupling variable amongst Pcpu and Psys Tj: CPU spec. for Intel: 100 ℃ Ta: OEM spec., 35 ℃ Θ j-a , Tsys: OEM outline subordinate, Tsys = 10~15 ℃

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Basic Concepts for NB Thermal Design Thermal Solutions Passive warm arrangement Active warm arrangement Hybrid warm arrangement RHE Remote Heat Exchanger

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Basic Concepts for NB Thermal Design Characteristic of a decent inactive parts Spreader plate associated with CPU ought to be as substantial as could reasonably be expected Temperature minor departure from spreader plate ought to be insignificant Characteristic of a decent dynamic segment Air gulf and outlet ought to be plainly characterized Length of air entry through NB ought to be little to keep weight drop low, stream rate high Possible decrease clamor level of the fan Design must be fit for venting a bit of hot air from NB inside

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Important Components For Thermal Design Heat Sink Heat Pipe Fan TIM ( Thermal Interface Material) Combination of previously mentioned segments

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Heat Sink Material : A1050 A6063 ADC12 C1100 K(W/mk) : 230 210 192 384 Specific gravity: 2.71 2.69 2.70 8.92 Production Die-throwing Extruded Q = - KA Δ T/Δ L Fin, Q = hA Δ T Die-throwing, expulsion, envelope, stack, fastening balances

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Heat Pipe Basic setup and trademark Basic particular Material: copper Working liquid: immaculate water Standard working temperature: 0~100 ℃ Size: ψ 3, ψ 4, ψ 5, ψ 6, ψ 8 Typical warmth pipe wick structures Fiber, work, groove, powder Typical alteration of warmth pipe Flattening Bending Heat Plate

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Fan Structure Rotator: attractive cutting edge, shaft Stator: bearing, wire, stainless plate Control circuit Theory Type Axial fan Blower fan Selection Total cooling necessity Q = Cp * m * Δ T = ρ * Cp * CFM * Δ T Total framework resistance/framework trademark bend System working point

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Fan Parallel and arrangement operation Acoustical commotion level (dB) To accomplish low clamor ought to consider System impedance Flow aggravation Fan speed and size Temperature rise Vibration Voltage variety Design contemplations

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TIM Thermal Interface Material To diminish contact warm resistance between CPU pass on and warm module Important of TIM Material Various material: silicon-base, carbon … Non-stage change Phase change Pressure impact Pressure spec. on CPU spec. 100psi

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Clarify Thermal Specification Evaluate warm era Allowable warm resistance Allowable outline space Design Thermal Solution Design Thermal Solution Evaluate Chassis warm dispersal Evaluate warm trade territory Evaluate fan stream rate Analytic Approach Evaluate Solution Performance Numerical Approach Experiment Approach Verify Fail Pass Thermal Design Procedure

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Inspect Structure.Production method.Cost… Recommend Thermal Solution Thermal Test in Working Sample Examine and Modify Thermal Solution Verify Overall System Meeting Thermal Specification Fail Pass Thermal Design OK!

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Thermal Design Guides Design manage for warm (Ver. 0.2)

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Thank You!

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N 無刷馬達轉動原理 N 有 Hall IC 感應其磁鐵 N.S. 極 , 經由電路控制其線圈之導通產生內部激磁使轉子部旋轉 S N

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Static weight Fan bend System resistance bend System working point CFM(ft 3/min)

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Thermal Module Reserve space for warm module (Intel suggestion) Coppermine: 70*50*11.5mm Tualatin: 75*55*11.5mm Northwood: 85*60*19mm It ought to save a crevice between warm module and top cover (console cover)

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1. Warm Module The crevice between warm module exit and NB case vent ought to be fixed well so the hot air couldn " t stream back to framework. In the event that leave an open hole along wind stream way, it will influence warm productivity and acoustic clamor.

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1. Warm Module The warm module and CPU ought to contact well. The maximum weight of the warm module on CPU is 100psi. Inside SPEC, proficiency of warm module increments with weight. It " s better to alter module on M/B by four screws (keeping away from three screws) and spring plan.

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2. Fan gulf requirements: hole 3~5mm is required . 3mm ~ 80% execution 4mm ~ 90% execution 5mm ~ 100% execution Configuration of air gulf & outlet vents can make drastically stream resistance; in this way high open rate is better.

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2. Fan Don " t put squares (huge ICs or connector) close or underneath the fan to influence wind stream initiated into fan. It is better to fix fan by elastic rather than metal screws to maintain a strategic distance from vibration .

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2. Fan The fan space plan has a few confinements. For productivity and acoustic, the crevice amongst balances and fan cutting edge ought to keep a separation of L= 5 ~ 10 mm. The separation W is ideal to keep as huge as would be prudent for good productivity. Fan sharp edge ought to near fan tongue for better productivity.

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3. PCMCIA Card Don " t put PCMCIA on lower side of M/B, close more blazing ICs, and stacked up key parts (HDD, CD-ROM, DVD, FDD … ). On the off chance that it needs to put PCMCIA close warmth source, it is important to actuate wind stream to cool it. (Ex. For J2I++, L1R, it is expelled metal plate on PCMCIA space and makes gaps above PCMCIA if there is an Al plate upon it. By along these lines, air can course through this territory to cool PCMCIA card.)

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3. PCMCIA Card Due to previously mentioned arrangement, PCMCIA ought to put close fan with a specific end goal to actuate wind current to cool.

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4. Key Components Because HDD, CD-ROM, FDD warm SPCE is low, these key parts should be set in colder locale. (Abstain from putting them amidst the framework and upon M/B with hot ICs, and stacking up each other). It " s better to put FDD alone, not to put on/underneath CD-ROM or HDD.

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5. Palm-Rest and Glid Pad It ought to abstain from setting hot parts and ICs underneath palm-rest and glid cushion. It ought to hold a hole to make a warm resistance between palm-rest and the hot parts or to include a metal plate for spreading heat.

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6. LCD Inverter It ought to hold a crevice amongst Inverter and LCD cover to make a warm resistance or to include a metal plate for spreading heat.

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7. Base case and Dimm Door It ought to save a hole between IC chips and base case(gap > 3mm is better). It may have a substantial Al-plate on base case for spreading heat. M/B has a gap beneath fan keeping in mind the end goal to prompt wind stream under M/B. It " s better to put more smoking chips on upper side of M/B. It ought to hold a crevice between Memory chips and dimm entryway (expand > 1.5mm is better).

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8. M/B Layout If there " s warm issue of ICs, it ought to hold space for warm arrangements (Ex. Wear " t put higher segments next to these ICs, so it could put metal plate on ICs in future) Don " t put low temperature spec ICs and parts close more sweltering district or high temperature spec ICs and segments.

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9. Others It " s better to utilize the more slender or stage change TIM (warm interface material) Ex. 28W CPU (stage change) Powerstrate 0.08mm 75 ℃ (stage change) T-pcm 0.25mm 83 ℃ T-pcm 0.50mm 86 ℃ (stage change with Al)