Presentation Landscape Ecology

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Presentation – Landscape Ecology Landscape Ecology : Study of scene structure and procedures. Scene : Heterogeneous zone made out of a few environments. Scene Elements : Visually particular fixes in a biological community.

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Vancouver Island marmot ( Marmota vancouverensis ) ~100 left Isolated from aged and Olympic marmots

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Vancouver Island marmot ( Marmota vancouverensis ) Natural tree progression

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Vancouver Island marmot ( Marmota vancouverensis ) Logging – disjunct patches - max. dispersal = 7 km Climate Prey-Predator Dynamics

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Human Land Use Practices Agriculture Suburban Development Let's single out Indiana: 97% of land in state = exclusive In focal Indiana, 70+% of land in line trim <10% in backwoods Urban sprawl escalating

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Human Impacts Ecosystem disentanglement : end of species from sustenance networks by means of human adjustments to land Example: vertebrate groups in ag. scenes

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Intensive Agriculture & Clean Farming

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Timber Extraction & Fragmentation

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Roads: Formation of Barriers in Landscapes

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Formation of Terrestrial "Islands"

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Habitat Fragmentation Process of breaking touching unit into littler pieces; zone & separate parts Leads to: < remainder fix measure > edge:interior proportions > fix disconnection < availability Community & Ecosystem forms changed

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Formation of Terrestrial "Islands"

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Habitat Loss versus Living space Fragmentation

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Patch measure #patches Patch disconnection Edge

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What about sea-going frameworks?

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What about oceanic frameworks? Con.Bio 12(6)

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Habitat Fragmentation zone delicate species : species that require least fix measure for every day life necessities Edge impacts : impact of elements from outside of a fix

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Increased Edge Habitat

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Increased Edge Habitat

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Edge Effects Habitat encompassing a fix can: change abiotic conditions; e.g., temp. change biotic cooperations, e.g., predation Example of home predation = edge impact of around 50 m into timberland fix

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Habitat Fragmentation First-Order Effects : fracture prompts to change in an animal types' plenitude and additionally appropriation

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Habitat Fragmentation Higher-Order Effects : discontinuity in a roundabout way prompts to change in an animal types wealth or potentially dispersion by means of modified species connections

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HABITAT FRAGMENTATION Predators - Abundance - Distribution - Foraging Behaviors + Ground-Nesting Birds - Abundance - Distribution – Avian Competitors Avian Prey Brood Parasites + Parasites - Abundance - Distribution REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS

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Habitat Fragmentation: Species-Specific Sensitivity? Uncommon species = more helpless Wide running species = substantial region prerequisites Species with lessened portability = more powerless Species with low fertility (identified with irregularity?) Species with short life cycle (or multi-organize life cycle?)

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Habitat Fragmentation: Species-Specific Sensitivity? Ground-settling fowls might be more defenseless (30-60% diminishment in last 25 yrs) Interior-subordinate Species powerless against human misuse or unsettling influence Specialist species?

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Habitat Fragmentation: Species-Specific Sensitivity? Speculations are a decent begin (= theories?), however somewhat more unpredictable than that… …

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Gehring and Swihart. 2003. Organic Conservation 109:283-295

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Spatial and Temporal Ecology of Raccoons Gehring et al. In prep.

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Swihart et al. 2003. Assorted qualities and Distributions 9:1-8.

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Brown and Litvaitis. 1995. Canadian Journal of Zoology 73:1005-1011

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Implications of Changes in Scale Insects tested at 10-m interims for 100 m

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Implications of Changes in Scale Insects inspected at 2000-m interims for 20,000 m

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Landscape Processes Landscape structure impacts procedures, for example, the stream of vitality, materials, and species between the biological system inside a scene.

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Landscape Structure and Dispersal of Small Mammals

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Habitat Patch Size and Isolation and Density of Butterfly Populations

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Organisms and Landscape Structure African elephants thump down tress. Change forest to meadow. Kangaroo Rats burrow tunnel frameworks that change soil structure and plant appropriations. Beavers cut trees, construct dams and surge encompassing scene. At one time, beavers changed about all calm stream valleys in Northern Hemisphere.

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Organisms and Landscape Structure Johnston and Naiman reported considerable impacts of beavers on scene structure. More than 63 yrs, range made by beavers expanded from 200 ha to 2,661 ha. Changed boreal backwoods scene to complex mosaic. Skip

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Organisms and Landscape Structure Beaver action between 1927-1988 expanded amount of most significant particles and supplements in appropriated zones. Three conceivable clarifications: Impounded territories may trap materials. Rising waters caught supplements formally held in vegetation. Natural surroundings made by beavers may advance supplement maintenance by adjusting biogeochemical forms. Skip

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Introduction – Geographical Ecology MacArthur characterized land environment as the look for examples of plant and creature life that can be put on a guide. Above level of scene environment. Endless broadness Chapter just spotlights on a couple of perspectives.

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Oceanic Island = Terrestrial Island ?????

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Island Area and Species Richness Preston discovered least fledgling species live on littlest islands and most species on biggest islands. Nilsson et.al. discovered island region was best single indicator of species wealth among woody plants, carabid creepy crawlies, and land snails. Skip

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Island Area and Species Richness

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Species-Area Relationship S = cA z S = # of species A = island zone Positive connection between's island estimate & number of species Applies to earthly "islands" likewise

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Habitat Patches on Continents: Mountain Islands As Pleistocene finished and atmosphere warmed, woods and snow capped living spaces contracted to the highest points of high mountains crosswise over American Southwest. Forests, meadows, and forsake scour, attacked bring down heights. Once ceaseless backwoods changed over to arrangement of island-like sections connected with mountains: Montane. Skip

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Lakes as Islands Lakes can be considered as living space islands. Contrast generally by level of segregation. Tonn and Magnuson found the quantity of species increments with the zone of a separate situation. Barbour and Brown discovered positive relationship amongst region and fish species lavishness. Skip

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Lakes as Islands Skip

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Marine Islands MacArthur and Wilson discovered disconnection diminishes flying creature differences on Pacific Islands. Williamson compressed information from relationship between island territory and species extravagance in Azore Islands: Birds demonstrate clear impact of segregation on assorted qualities, plants don't. Arrive winged animals fly crosswise over water hindrances, and plants deliver expansive amounts of light spores effortlessly scattered in the wind. Skip

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Marine Islands Skip

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Isolation and Habitat Islands on Continents Lomolino et.al. found a solid negative relationship amongst disconnection and the quantity of montane warm blooded animal species living on peaks over the American Southwest. Skip

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Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography MacArthur and Wilson : Model clarifying examples of species differing qualities on islands as aftereffect of movement and annihilation rates. Contemplated rates of movement would be most astounding on new island without any life forms. As species amassed, rate of migration would decay since less entries would be new species.

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Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography Predicted rate of eradication would ascend with expanding number of species on an island for three reasons: Presence of more species makes a bigger pool of potential annihilations. As number of species builds, populace size of each must reduce. As number of species expands, potential for aggressive cooperations between species will increment.

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Equilibrium Model of Island Biogeography Point where two lines cross predicts the quantity of species that will happen on an island. Proposed rates of termination on islands would be resolved essentially by island estimate. LG close islands will bolster most elevated number. SM far islands will bolster most reduced number. SM close and LG far will bolster transitional number. Skip

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Island Biogeography balance display proposing that the quantity of species happening on an island speaks to a harmony between movement (in) and termination (out) Robert MacArthur & E.O. Wilson

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Experimental Island Biogeography Simberloff and Wilson concentrated on creepy crawly recolonization in Florida Keys. Picked 2 stands of mangroves as control islands, and 6 others as test islands. Defaunated islands Followed recolonization for 1 yr. Species number remained steady, however sythesis changed significantly. Skip

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Experimental Island Biogeography Skip

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Colonization of New Islands by Plants Rydin and Borgegard discovered variety in spp. extravagance related decidedly with island territory and represented 44-85% of variety in species wealth among islands. Little and medium islands kept on collecting species. Expansive islands accomplished balance of migration and termination. Hard to separate impacts of living space assorted qualities from territory impacts. Skip

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Manipulating Island Area Simberloff tried impact of island region on species

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