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Abilities and execution attributes of essential useful units (e.g. ... for example, the Apple II (underneath) implicit 1977 by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. ...

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Presentation Dr. Bernard Chen Ph.D. College of Central Arkansas Spring 2009

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What Is Computer Architecture? PC Architecture = Instruction Set Architecture + Machine Organization 2

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Instruction Set Architecture ISA = qualities of the figuring framework as observed by the developer Organization of programmable stockpiling Data sorts & information structures Instruction set Instruction groups Modes of tending to Exception taking care of 3

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Machine Organization Capabilities & execution attributes of primary useful units (e.g., registers, ALU, shifters, rationale units) Ways in which these segments are interconnected Information stream between parts Logic and means by which such data stream is controlled 4

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What is "PC" • A PC is a machine that performs computational undertakings utilizing put away directions.

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A PC comprise of … ? 1) Central preparing unit (CPU); 2) Random get to memory (RAM); 3) Input-yield processors (IOP). These gadgets impart to each other through an arrangement of electric wires called transport.

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CPU comprises of > Arithmetic rationale unit (ALU): Executes number-crunching (expansion, multiplication,...) and coherent (AND, OR,...) operations. > Control unit: Generates an arrangement of control signs (cf. activity flag) advising the ALU how to work; peruses and executes microprograms put away in a read just memory (ROM). > Registers: Fast, little memory for impermanent stockpiling amid scientific operations.

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RAM stores > Program: A grouping of guidelines to be executed by the PC Ø Data

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History of Computers The world's first universally useful electronic PC was ENIAC worked by Eckert and Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania amid World War II. In any case, rewiring this PC to play out another assignment requires days of work by various administrators. ENIAC worked by Eckert and Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania amid World War II 9

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The main down to earth put away program PC The principal viable put away program PC was EDSAC worked in 1949 by Wilkes of Cambridge University. Presently the program notwithstanding information is put away in the memory so that diverse issues can be understood without equipment rewiring any longer. 10

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Eckert and Mauchly later went to business, and constructed the principal business PC in the United States, UNIVAC I, in 1951. UNIVAC I 11

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IBM System/360 arrangement A business achievement happened in 1964 when IBM presented System/360 arrangement. The arrangement incorporate different models extending from $225K to $1.9M with fluctuated execution yet with a solitary direction set design . 12

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Supercomputers The time of vector supercomputers began in 1976 when Seymour Cray manufactured Cray-1 Vector preparing is a sort of parallelism which accelerates calculation. We will learn related idea of pipelining in this course. In late 80's, enormously parallel PCs, for example, the CM-2 turned into the focal innovation for supercomputing. 13

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Microprocessors Another imperative improvement is the innovation of the microchip - a PC on a solitary semiconductor chip. 14

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Microprocessor 15

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PCs Microprocessors empowered PCs, for example, the Apple II (beneath) inherent 1977 by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. 16

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Moore's Law In 1965, Gordon Moore anticipated that the quantity of transistors per incorporated circuit would twofold like clockwork. This forecast, called "Moore's Law," keeps on remaining constant today. The table beneath demonstrates the quantity of transistors in a few chip presented since 1971. 17

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Moore's Law Still Holds 10 11 4G 2G 10 1G 512M Memory 256M 10 9 128M Itanium ® Microprocessor 64M 10 8 Pentium ® 4 16M Pentium ® III 10 7 4M Pentium ® II 1M 10 6 Pentium ® 256K Transistors Per Die i486™ 64K 10 5 i386™ 16K 80286 4K 10 4 8080 1K 8086 10 3 4004 10 2 10 1 10 0 " 60 " 65 " 70 " 75 " 80 " 85 " 90 " 95 " 00 " 05 " 10 18 Source: Intel

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Digital Systems - Analog versus Computerized Analog versus Computerized: Continuous versus discrete. Comes about - Digital PCs supplanted simple PCs 19

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Digital Advantages More adaptable (simple to program), quicker, more exact . Capacity gadgets are less demanding to actualize. Worked in blunder location and adjustment. Less demanding to minimize.

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Binary System • Digital PCs utilize the twofold number framework. Twofold number framework: Has two digits: 0 and 1. • Reasons to pick the twofold framework: 1. Straightforwardness : A PC is a "numbskull" which aimlessly takes after mechanical guidelines; we can't accept any earlier learning on his part. 2. Comprehensiveness : notwithstanding number juggling operations , a PC which talks a twofold dialect can play out any assignments that are communicated utilizing the formal rationale . 21

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Example Adding two numbers High-level dialect (C) c = a + b; Assembly dialect LDA 004 ADD 005 STA 006 Machine dialect 0010 0000 0100 0001 0000 0101 0011 0000 0110

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Since the need is incredible for controlling the relations between the capacities that contain the paired or rationale expression, Boolean variable based math has been presented. The Boolean variable based math is named out of appreciation for a spearheading researcher named: George Boole. A Boolean esteem is a 1 or a 0. A Boolean variable goes up against Boolean qualities. A Boolean capacity takes in Boolean factors and delivers Boolean qualities. Boolean polynomial math 23

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Boolean or rationale operations OR . This is composed + (e.g. X+Y where X and Y are Boolean factors) and frequently called the intelligent whole. On the other hand is called paired administrator. What's more, . Called coherent item and composed as a focused spot (like item in customary variable based math). Also, is called double administrator. NOT . This is an unary administrator (One contention), NOT(A) is composed A with a bar over it or utilize " rather than a bar as it is less demanding to sort. Selective OR ( XOR ). Composed as + with hover around it  . It is additionally a double administrator. Genuine if precisely one information is valid (i.e. genuine XOR genuine = false). 24

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INPU XOR A  B OR A+B AND A.B An A B 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 TRUTH TABLES ___ A.B 25

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Important characters of Boolean ALGEBRA . Character: A+0 = 0+A = An A . 1 = 1 . A = An Inverse: A+A' = A'+A = 1 A . A' = A' . A = 0 (utilizing " for not) + for OR . for AND 26

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Important characters of Boolean ALGEBRA Associative: A+(B+C) = (A+B)+C A.(B.C)=(A.B).C Due to cooperative law we can compose A.B.C since either request of assessment gives a similar reply. Regularly omit the . so the item acquainted law is A(BC)=(AB)C

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Important personalities of Boolean ALGEBRA Distributive: A(B+C)=AB+AC Similar to math. A+(BC)=(A+B)(A+C) Contradictory to math. How can one demonstrate these laws?? Basic (yet long) compose the Truth Tables for each and see that the yields are the same.

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Important personalities of Boolean ALGEBRA . 29