Polonium

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Polonium!!!

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The London Po-210 Poisoning Case: What we know and what we don't know May 15, 2008 CAPT Michael A. Noska, USPHS Senior Health Physicist U.S. Branch of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health

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Outline Basic order of the occasions Internal Radiation Dosimetry 101 Specifics of Polonium-210 Dosimetry for Mr. Litvinenko Health material science, general wellbeing and criminal F/U

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Chronology 11/1/2006 Litvinenko meets Russians at London inn. A few hours after the fact, gets to be wiped out with regurgitating. 11/4/2006 Litvinenko admitted to doctor's facility 11/11/2006 Condition terrible. Put under furnished monitor. 11/19/2006 Report of thallium harming. 11/21/2006 Litvinenko basic, endures heart assault. Russians deny association. 11/23/2006 Litvinenko bites the dust. 11/24/2006 Litvinenko's announcement read. Wellbeing powers recognize Po-210 as reasonable justification of death.

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Basic Radiation Physics and Dosimetry Types of radiation: α , β +/β - , γ/x, n Radioactivity: (units: Ci, Bq) Half-life Absorbed measurement: vitality granted per unit mass of tissue Units: rad/rem, Gy/Sv 1 Gy=100 rad; 1 Sv=100 rem

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Dose Parameters Type of radiation Amount of radioactivity Half-life Chemical shape Biodistribution Biokinetics Body/organ mass Time of organization Route of organization

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Absorbed Dose

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Polonium-210 (Po-210) Solid metal at room temperature Dissolves promptly in weaken acids Decays by alpha molecule outflow "Pure alpha" Becomes effortlessly airborne and "creeps" because of alpha backlash vitality

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Po-210 proceeded with Uranium arrangement decay item Physical half-life: 138.38 days Biological half-life: 50 days Effective half-life: 36.7 days Specific action: 4490 Ci/g

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210 Po Decay Scheme

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Sources of Po-210 Naturally happening in plants and sustenances (tobacco) Grazing creatures move in body tissues Nuclear weapons (not presently) RTGs for space program (not as of now) Anti-static gadgets (fixed sources) Nuclear reactors Russia makes ~100 grams every year and fares ~1 gram every year to the US

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Radiation Hazard No outer risk because of low yield gamma discharge Internal danger due to α - molecule High LET Distributes in delicate tissue → entire body dosage Concentrates in liver, kidney, RBM, spleen and skin Excreted by means of pee, dung, skin

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Mr. Litvinenko

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What do we know? Kind of radiation Amount of radioactivity Half-life Chemical shape Biodistribution Biokinetics Body/organ mass Time of organization Route of organization

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What do we know? Kind of radiation YES Amount of radioactivity Half-life Chemical frame Biodistribution Biokinetics Body/organ mass Time of organization Route of organization

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What do we know? Sort of radiation YES Amount of radioactivity NO Half-life Chemical shape Biodistribution Biokinetics Body/organ mass Time of organization Route of organization

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What do we know? Sort of radiation YES Amount of radioactivity NO Half-life YES Chemical frame Biodistribution Biokinetics Body/organ mass Time of organization Route of organization

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What do we know? Sort of radiation YES Amount of radioactivity NO Half-life YES Chemical form NO Biodistribution Biokinetics Body/organ mass Time of organization Route of organization

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What do we know? Kind of radiation YES Amount of radioactivity NO Half-life YES Chemical form NO Biodistribution MAYBE Biokinetics Body/organ mass Time of organization Route of organization

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What do we know? Kind of radiation YES Amount of radioactivity NO Half-life YES Chemical form NO Biodistribution MAYBE Biokinetics MAYBE Body/organ mass Time of organization Route of organization

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What do we know? Sort of radiation YES Amount of radioactivity NO Half-life YES Chemical form NO Biodistribution MAYBE Biokinetics MAYBE Body/organ mass YES Time of organization Route of organization

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What do we know? Kind of radiation YES Amount of radioactivity NO Half-life YES Chemical form NO Biodistribution MAYBE Biokinetics MAYBE Body/organ mass YES Time of administration NO Route of administration

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What do we know? Kind of radiation YES Amount of radioactivity NO Half-life YES Chemical form NO Biodistribution MAYBE Biokinetics MAYBE Body/organ mass YES Time of administration NO Route of administration NO

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Retrospective Dose Assessment Incomplete data Assumptions (time, course of organization) Biological specimens Biokinetic models: ICRP 30, ICRP 68, ICRP 72 Animal information Lethal dosage (LD 50/60 ) Acute versus perpetual measurements

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ICRP GI Tract Model Stomach 1 hour 4 hours SI Blood 13 hours ULI f 1 = 10% for polonium LLI 24 hours Feces

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Mr. Litvinenko's Dose He got a snootfull (Sf)! 1-3 GBq (~25-80 mCi) 50 mCi? ~6 micrograms Dose to RBM ≈ 9 Gy in three weeks Other organs: liver (25 Gy/GBq), kidneys (40 Gy/GBq), spleen (15 Gy/GBq)* * J. Harrison et al, Polonium-210 as a toxic substance, J. Radiol. Prot. 27 (2007), pp. 17-40.

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Health Physics Response HPA otherwise known as NRPB Surveys Laboratory investigation Clean-up/remediation Total government reaction (NRC, DOE, EPA counterparts)

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Other Contaminated Locations Offices Restaurants Coffee bars Nightclubs Football (soccer) stadium Airplanes Cars Hotels (3 basically)

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Public Health Response (UK) Health Protection Agency Tracked plane travelers and any other person who had contact with Litvinenko Comm. arrange (Website, media, call focus) Developed conventions for lab examination and measurements evaluation in light of urinalysis, ICRP models Follow-up criteria: <1mSv,1 ≥EDE<6, ≥6 738 specimens (686/35/17)

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Public Health Response (US) CDC worked intimately with UK State Department, CDC Quarantine program Public Health message (HAN, Epi-X) Identified labs and created investigative arrangements (like UK) ~100 self-reported, 24 tests broke down All comes about <1mSv

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The CDC Team Radiation Studies Branch Charles W. Mill operator, PhD Robert C. Whitcomb, PhD, CHP Armin Ansari, PhD, CHP CDR Jeffrey B. Nemhauser, MD, USPHS Carol McCurley, MS Communications Bernadette Burden, Office of the Director Dagney Olivares, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry Division of Laboratory Sciences Robert Jones, PhD Division of Global Migration and Quarantine Gary W. Brunette, MD Special Thanks: John Croft, PhD, Head of Emergency Response, United Kingdom Health Protection Agency

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Criminal Investigation Poisoning presumed early, sort obscure Discovery of rad pollution (11/21) Millenium lodging bar and sushi bar shut (wrongdoing scene and general wellbeing concern) Easy to take after trail Suspect distinguished May 2007

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Conclusion Almost the ideal wrongdoing! Real effect both in UK and globally Media craze View to what's to come? Would it be able to happen here? It did!

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June 29, 1995 NIH P-32 Incident 27 individuals (counting pregnant laborer) inside sullied with ~1-500 μ Ci Laboratories and scientist's home debased Massive study, bioassay and cleaning exertion Local occasion

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Acknowledgment Dr. Charles Miller CDC, Radiation Studies Branch

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