Point 9 How Does Life Use Energy

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Nature of science:. Look for unthinking clarifications

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Point 9 How Does Life Use Energy? Dr. George Lapennas Dept. of Biology

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Nature of science: Search for robotic clarifications – ones that anticipate occasions in view of basic standards and structures

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Quick audit of extraordinary attributes of living things (life forms)

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1. Development

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2. Advancement (changes other than development amid individual lifetime)

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3. Propagation (includes legacy )

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4. Requested, complex structure ; adjustment

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5. Development (esp. creatures)

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6. Affectability/Responsiveness

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7. Development (change over eras)

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8. Cognizance/Rationality

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9. Utilization of vitality

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Can life likewise be seen unthinkingly (versus vitalistically)?

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An early unthinking achievement: Harvey's incomplete clarification of the pumping and flow of the blood

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Some 19 th century ventures from a vitalistic toward a robotic comprehension of life

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1. The phone hypothesis Living things are comprised of vast quantities of minor units called "cells" that originate from past cells Prerequisite specialized progress : Invention of the magnifying instrument (mid 1600's)

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Structure of a creature cell

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Structure of a plant cell

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2. In vitro (in glass) combination of natural atoms Wohler's 1828 in vitro amalgamation of urea, and so forth. In the long run, scientists figured out how to orchestrate everything in vitro that living beings incorporate in vivo . General conclusion : There are no extraordinary laws of science working inside living beings.

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3. The maturation contention " Fermentations " – concoction changes that had just been seen in relationship with living things Buchner (1897) watched aging of natural product squeeze by without cell concentrate of yeast, yielding liquor and carbon dioxide (CO2) Conclusion: Living cells are not required for aging – just need a few materials that were available inside the cells (now known to be chemicals - proteins that go about as impetuses to accelerate responses).

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4. Cryptobiosis Does life irreversibly end when life forms stop? then again … Can life procedures be ceased and later re-begun, inasmuch as essential structure have been protected? Can the "clock" of life be halted and after that re-begun?

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4. Cryptobiosis Conclusion : Life forms just rely on the nearness of certain matter in a specific auxiliary course of action . That matter and structure can hold on amid drying or solidifying when all procedures stop. Life procedures can endless supply of water or defrosting.

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Why did robotic clarifications take so long to create in science? - Because living things are a great deal more mind boggling than whatever else that researchers ponder - Many different revelations must be made before the systems of organic structures and procedures could be adequately explored.

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Machinery of life: 4 classes of natural " large scale - atoms" amassed from littler "building squares"

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Machinery of life: 4 classes of natural " full scale - particles" gathered from building pieces 1. Proteins (auxiliary; reactant "catalysts") 2. Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA; directions for legacy as the structure of proteins) 3. Polysaccharides (vitality stockpiling; structure) 4. Complex lipids (vitality stockpiling; cell layers)

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Amino acids are the building pieces of Proteins

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Protein structure – essential structure

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Protein structure – auxiliary structure (nearby collapsing designs)

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Protein structure – tertiary structure (general collapsing design)

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Protein work relies on upon shape

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DNA (particle of legacy )

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Living matter appears to comply with an indistinguishable laws of material science and science from non-living matter Conservation of mass Conservation of force Gravitation Chemical properties of components Laws of thermodynamics

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Laws of thermodynamics In any detached framework (regardless of or vitality can enter or leave the framework), including the whole universe : First Law – the aggregate sum of vitality is steady, however it can change frame.

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Laws of thermodynamics In any secluded framework (regardless of or vitality can enter or leave), including the whole universe : First Law –total measure of vitality is consistent, however it can change shape. Second Law – Whenever anything really happens, the entropy (issue) of the framework increments.

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Laws of thermodynamics In any disengaged framework (regardless of or vitality can enter or leave), including the whole universe : First Law –total measure of vitality is consistent, however it can change shape. Second Law – Whenever anything really happens, the entropy (issue) of the separated framework increments. - " Time's Arrow " focuses toward expanding entropy (issue) of the universe. - Changes that would decrease the entropy of the universe can't happen

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"Unconstrained" changes = changes that can happen = "downhill" changes

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"Unconstrained" procedures can happen

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Two old speculations about creatures' utilization of sustenance 1. Absorption - sustenance is added to the body for development or to supplant material lost through "wear and tear"

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Two old theories about creatures' utilization of nourishment 1. Digestion - sustenance is added to body for development or to supplant material lost through "wear and tear" 2. Ignition - sustenance is some way or another "smoldered" inside the body, similar to fuel in a fire, creating heat, and being expended simultaneously

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Reinterpretation of burning and creature breath by Lavoisier (late 1700's)… - Overthrew phlogiston hypothesis and connected new learning of gasses to burning - Flames and creatures don't deliver phlogiston, - Both devour oxygen (O2) and discharge carbon dioxide (CO2) and warmth

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Lavoisier and Laplace watched quantitative similitudes between copying charcoal and the breath of a living creature .

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Quantitative similitudes amongst ignition and breath Same/Similar proportions of … warmth created/vol. of CO2 delivered and vol. of O2 devoured/vol. of CO2 delivered

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"Moderate burning" Lavoisier and Laplace guessed that creatures complete a "moderate ignition" of fuel (process now called cell breath ). They trusted that the capacity of cell breath was to make warm .

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What do we know now about the utilization of sustenance by creatures? - Cells both ASSIMILATE nourishment and utilize it as FUEL FOR CELLULAR RESPIRATION

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What do we know now about the utilization of sustenance? - Cells both ASSIMILATE nourishment and utilize it as FUEL FOR CELLULAR RESPIRATION - For most living beings, warmth is only a futile by-result of cell breath, not the capacity of the procedure.

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What is the essential capacity of cell breath? Cell breath gives vitality to do " cell work ".

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What is the capacity of cell breath? Cell breath gives vitality to do "cell work". " Cell work " signifies "tough" cell forms that would not be unconstrained ( couldn't happen) all alone, … yet can happen if " coupled " to some other, exceptionally unconstrained process, with the end goal that the two procedures happening together increment the entropy of the universe.

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3 Types of Cell Work: - Active transport - Movement - Bio-union

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Digestion of full scale particles When we process nourishment large scale atoms, we separate them into their building pieces Examples: proteins  amino acids polysaccharides  straightforward sugars Nucleic acids  nucleotides

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Digestion of full scale particles When we process sustenance full scale atoms, we separate them into their building squares. Blood conveys building square to the cells, where they are taken up, and some are reassembled into new large scale particles.

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Digestion is "downhill" Dismantling large scale atoms is a disarranging procedure that builds the entropy of the universe. Full scale atom  building pieces + warm (requested, non-irregular) (scattered) (arbitrary vitality)

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Assembly of macromolecules just by switching absorption? NO! Assimilation is downhill (expands the entropy of universe).

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Assembly by just turning around processing? NO - Digestion is downhill (expands entropy of universe) So the switch procedure ( get together basically by turning around absorption) would be tough (lessen entropy of the universe), and can't occur

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An "unconstrained" procedures can happen; the invert procedure can't

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Question : Then in what capacity can large scale atom get together (and different sorts of cell work) happen?

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Answer : By "coupling" cell work to some declining procedure An unconstrained procedure can be turned around by coupling it to a MORE unconstrained process (spoke to by a bigger weight).

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Mechanical coupling

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An unconstrained procedure can be switched by coupling it to a MORE unconstrained process, (for example, a bigger weight). The COMBINED procedure is then downhill , and builds the entropy of the universe. We say : "The second, profoundly unconstrained, prepare supplies vitality to drive the tough procedure (which couldn't have happened alone)."

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What exceptionally unconstrained process drives cell work? The very unconstrained process that drives cell work is " part ATP "

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ATP = A denosine T ri-P hosphate

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Splitting ATP 

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