Physical Science

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Yes, we all comprehend what power is, yet precisely what is it?- where does it originate from-would you be able to see it-how is it made. Power. Power is a power made by a distinction in charges (

Presentation Transcript

Slide 1

Physical Science Ch. 7: Electricity

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Yes, we as a whole know what power is, yet precisely what is it? - where does it originate from -would you be able to see it -how is it made

Slide 3

Electricity is a compel made by a distinction in charges (+ & - ) because of picked up or lost electrons. (an electron is a contrarily charged molecule.) When power is streaming between two focuses, this is really electrons moving from indicate A point B. This is called an electrical current.

Slide 4

all together for these electrons to stream, in any case, there must be a distinction in charges (# of electrons developed) between the 2 focuses. Much the same as warmth stream needs a distinction in temperatures. Power dependably spills out of an area with a negative accuse to an area of a positive charge. (like charges repulse, opposites are inclined toward one another) - +

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Think of a battery, the top has a + charge and the base has a negative charge. So when they are associated, electrons spill out of the base to the top.

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Static Electricity You may have seen that in the event that you stroll over the cover in socks, and after that touch your feline's nose, it will stun him/her (it). This is on account of, you got some free electrons strolling over the cover (sort of like tidy), and subsequently picked up a negative charge.

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Touching kitty's nose permits you to scatter that charge (send the additional electrons to a zone with less electrons, negative to positive) The stun will proceed until both surfaces are at a similar charge (killed)

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Static power is a transitory 1 time charge delivered by an abundance of electrons. Electrons noticeable all around will append to dampness noticeable all around. That is the reason exceptionally dry air (like in the winter, or in the dryer) may hold countless electrons, on the grounds that there's very little dampness for them to join to. i.e. There's more static noticeable all around in the winter in light of the fact that there are all the more free electrons simply drifting around

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Van der Graff generators fundamentally actuate a solid electrical field (can be either positive or negative contingent upon the setup) into an empty metal circle. This field can the discharge electrons into the encompassing air when the voltage gets to be distinctly sufficiently extraordinary.

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Voltage The distinction in charges between 2 focuses is known as the voltage. 2 focuses can both have a gigantic charge, however in the event that the charge is a similar then there will be no stream of electrons between them. - -

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The quantity of electrons really coursing through a conductor is known as the current , and is measured in amperes (amps). 1 amp = 6.25 x 10 18 electrons for every sec. (6,250,000,000,000,000,000!)

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So suppose that utilizing a voltmeter you confirm that there are no electrons spilling out of indicate A point B through an electrical string associating the two. Does that mean it is ok for you to touch both of the 2 focuses? Well… …

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No! There might be no electrons streaming in light of the fact that the charges are the same. Be that as it may, your charge might be vastly different, which would permit the power to stream into you.

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Conductors and Insulators Although an electric current can once in a while bounce from 1 indicate another, it ordinarily goes through a channel. A channel is any material which permits electrons (power) to stream effectively through it. Metals as a rule are great transmitters of power.

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Insulators are materials which keep the stream of electrons (power). Some great separators incorporate elastic, glass, wood, and plastic. Any sort of electric line ordinarily comprises of a metal leading wire encompassed by a layer of elastic or plastic protection.

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Resistors Materials called resistors can moderate the stream of power, without ceasing it all together. All materials, even great conduits, give no less than a little measure of imperviousness to an electric current. Resistance is measured in ohms . W

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Direct Current (DC) In most electrical circuits, the present will stream in just 1 course. This is called coordinate current or DC. Cases of direct current incorporate batteries, lightning, and friction based electricity.

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Lightning is a type of direct present (DC) created by friction based electricity in mists. The static is framed when air particles move past each other (simply like garments in a dryer).

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The negative charges assemble at the base of the cloud and exchange electrons to the ground, which has gone up against a positive charge. Why do you think the ground has gone up against a positive charge?

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Does lightning dependably venture out from cloud to ground? Gee… …

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Alternating Current (AC) An exchanging current will send a stream of electrons in 1 course through a circuit, and afterward it will invert the stream in the other heading. Family unit outlets are a case of AC current. They invert the bearing of the current around 120 times each second.

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What might happen on the off chance that you stuck one finger in one side of an outlet? One finger in each side?

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Transformers The AC which originates from your family outlets more often than not has a voltage of around 120V. The voltage of the electrical cables outside, notwithstanding, is considerably higher. Before going into your home, the power from the electrical cables must go through a transformer . This is a gadget which can increment or diminishing the voltage which exists between 2 focuses.

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Transformers outside your home make the voltage in your outlets ok for family unit machines. Periodically a lightning strike make take out a transformer, and send a power surge into your home.

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Step-up & venture down Transformers can likewise expand the voltage between 2 focuses. An intensifier and an immobilizer are cases of venture up transformers.

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Electric Generators The power provided to your house is created by an electric generator . This is a gadget which changes mechanical (motor) vitality into power. Most electric power which is produced in Missouri is either from hydroelectric or fossil fuel control plants.

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Electric Motors Electric engines are gadgets which change over power to mechanical vitality. Most family apparatus are cases of electric engines. Ex.: clothes washer, fan, cooler, VCR, dishwasher, hair dryer, and so forth

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Electric autos have motors which keep running on electrical vitality as opposed to concoction potential vitality (gas). These autos are more effective, cleaner to work, and abatement our reliance on fossil energizes. Be that as it may, the motors are not as capable and the autos have a constrained range.

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Batteries Electric engines are generally indicated to keep running on either exchanging present or direct present (created by batteries). A battery is a gadget which delivers a consistent direct present, through a substance response.

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Batteries can be made out of a fluid electrolyte (a fluid which will direct an electric current) ( wet cell ) or a glue electrolyte ( dry cell ). Regardless of whether fluid or glue, the electrolytes are typically acidic. Auto and vessel batteries are cases of wet cells, electric lamp batteries are cases of dry cells.

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A compound response inside the battery pulls electrons far from 1 of the terminals and offers them to the next. This makes 1 terminal be negative (- ) and the other to be certain (+). At the point when these terminals are associated through a gadget, they deliver a stream of electrons from negative to positive, which control the gadget.

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Electric Circuits A circuit is a pathway along which an electric current can travel, on the way to a gadget. Finding a gadget along that pathway will permit it to be fueled by the electric current. There are 2 unique sorts of circuits: arrangement and parallel.

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Series Circuit An arrangement circuit is one which has just 1 pathway for power to stream. All gadgets are situated along this single pathway, and any break in the circuit will stop the stream of power. Ex.: old sort Christmas tree lights

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Parallel Circuits A parallel circuit has various ways which the power can go down, with various gadgets along the diverse ways. In the event that one pathway is open or broken, the others can in any case convey power. Ex.: more current Christmas tree lights, family circuits

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Schematic Diagrams A schematic chart utilizes images to demonstrate electrical circuits and wiring.

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A short out happens when the present holds back before the proposed gadget, more often than not as a result of the circuit being finished preceding achieving the gadget.

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An electrical switch is a gadget which keeps a lot of power from coursing through a circuit. Breakers can be reset for the most part with the flip of a switch.

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Fuses do an indistinguishable thing from a breaker, yet they utilize a little wire connector which will wear out if the stream of power is too high. Combines for the most part must be supplanted after they wear out. Breakers are frequently found in electric apparatuses too.

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Electromagnets An electromagnet is a brief magnet made by passing an electric current through a wire looped around a metal center. Electromagnets have 2 favorable circumstances over typical magnets: 1. They can be turned on and off. 2. Their quality can change in view of the measure of current streaming.

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Examples of electromagnets incorporate cranes in scrap yards, broadcasts, and certain sorts of doorbells.

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History of Electricity 600 B.C.- Thales found friction based electricity. 1600 -