Phone s Impact and Its 4G

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Portable Communications Had An Uneasy and Shaky Past. Brought on By CongressCaused By FCCCaused By Industry. Why Mobile correspondences Research Started in 1964 at Bell Labs. . Congress took away the satellite interchanges Business from AT

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Mobile phone's Impact and Its 4G By Dr. William C.Y. Lee Chairman, Treyspan Inc, Formerly VP and Chief Scientist Vodafone AirTouch PLC Chancellor Tien Forum At ITRI-USA Feb. 8, 2007

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Caused By Congress Caused By FCC Caused By Industry Mobile Communications Had An Uneasy and Shaky Past

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Congress took away the satellite interchanges Business from AT&T New research for Mobile media communications was required Picture Phone market couldn't be taken off IC innovation for auto telephones was conceivable Why Mobile correspondences Research Started in 1964 at Bell Labs.

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1% of AT&T yearly income to bolster Bell Labs, made IPR utilized by the business without pay 1974: Asked AT&T to open offer its auto telephone assembling to the business 1974 OKI won the offer for the initial 200 auto telephones 1975 OKI, Motorola, E.F.Johnson won the 1800 auto telephones 1981: Judge Harold Green was in control stripping AT&T 1983: AT&T's 22 working organizations got to be 7 infant Bell organizations and were stripped 1983 Mobile telephone business went to Baby Bells The Policy of The USA Congress – Afraid of Monopoly Your Text Here

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Before 1974: Allocated 82 stations, 6 MHz/ch., in UHF Band to TV Industry. In this manner 10 GHz band was feasible for versatile correspondence After 1974: Allocated 70MHzx2 range in 800MHz band. Among them, 40 MHz was placed being used and 30 MHz was saved 1983: Within 40 MHz allotment, 20 MHz went to phone organizations and 20 MHz went to non-phone organizations. 1983: First USA cell framework worked in Chicago. FCC's Counteractive Rule-Making on Spectrum for Mobile Communications

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Complained by RCC (Radio Common Carriers), an industry gathering of dispatching and paging Tried to maintain a strategic distance from to be stripped Took time to consult among the business. A resale approach was made The Factors of Delay Deploying Until 1983

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Requirement Quality No bottleneck as a market item Handoff highlight High limit Successful Factors Took an extensive scale trial at Chicago in 1977-1978 Excellent quality User Friendly, similar to landline telephones Drawbacks Needed housetop radio wires Transceivers were in the auto trunks The Key Factor of Making 1G Successful

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An European computerized versatile framework created in 1983 and sent in 1991 Was undermined by UK's CT-2 Not intended for a high limit framework at the time No authorized expense to pay for the producers in European Community Accepted by China and completely conveyed in 1995 Becomes just about a worldwide framework GSM's Story

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1987 CTIA shaped a sub-board of trustees to choose a 2G framework, a high limit framework (10x AMPS) for Northern America FDMA was initial likely picked Decided TDMA as a result of GSM's impact A poor planned framework for high limit CDMA's prevalence Finally TDMA changed over GSM frameworks Fate of NA-TDMA

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MILESTONE Qualcomm went to Pactel and approached a review contract for utilizing CDMA in Cellular framework in Feb. 1989 yet absence of a power control conspire In April 1989, Qualcomm came back to Pactel with another made power control plot Pactel knew the NA-TDMA would be fizzled, tested Qualcomm to make a demo in six months and subsidized them one million dollars . Why CDMA

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MILESTONE (cont.) August 1989 Pactel subsidized another millions dollars Nov.3, 1989, a demo was occurred in San Diego; two locales and one auto telephone. Pactel gave specialized help and the range for them The 1989 demo was made effectively and stunned world Nov.1990 Korea purchased CDMA methods from Qualcomm through Pactel's presentation Why CDMA (cont.)

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REVIEW THE HISTORY Because of having another high limit framework as fast as could reasonably be expected, just permitted one organization to build up the framework Pactel requested that FCC favor a demand to purchase Qualcomm yet was dismisses Before CDMA turned into a standard, Qualcomm composed a CAI (basic air interface). Most enormous merchants got it Pactel sent CDMA in Jan.1995 in LA with a poor execution WHY CDMA (Cont.)

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REVIEW THE HISTORY ( cont.) In 1992 Korea named CDMA its national standard framework Jan. 1996 Korean sent its CDMA Sept. 1996 Korean achieved 1M clients Korea made CDMA work and spared CDMA Why CDMA (Cont. )

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In 1997 Ericsson and DoCoMo began advance 3G In 1998, ITU got 12 Proposed frameworks. OHG recommended to lessen to 3 WCDMA: European variant, Adapted CDMA with a transmission capacity of 5MHz utilizing FDD CDMA 2000, North America adaptation, utilized CDMA with 3x 1.25 MHz transfer speed Using FDD UTRA-TDD/TD-SCDMA: adjusted CDMA with a data transfer capacity of 5 MHz or 1.6MHz utilizing TDD Three standard gatherings were framed 3G WAS BORN in 1997

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REVIEW THE HISTORY Too rush to pick the innovation CDMA is an effective innovation for voice interchanges yet not for rapid information Standard body couldn't complete a spec. prior because of the debate brought on by the security of each organization's own advantage Multimedia applications requested by the clients began from 2002 WiMax 's OFDM can meet the rapid information necessity 3G System

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India chooses to go specifically to 4G China are assessing its TD-SCDMA In fast information transmission, CDMA can not rival OFDM Use of CDMA needs to pay a high IPR charge TD-SCDMA's execution is not in the same class as the other two 3Gs because of its began behind A 4G gathering was shaped by Samsung in 2003 3G's Current Situation

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WiFi and WiMAX are the B3G frameworks Using OFDM innovation Intel reported WiMAX chip will be imbedded in PC in 2007 and in handset in 2008 WiBro, Korean form of WiMAX has been sent in Korea Sprint-Nextel declared to trial WiMAX in 2007 and send in 2008 WiMAX might be a between time arrangement of a 4G framework B3G (Beyond 3G)

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Technology Centric Operators A framework plan Static applications Limited scope Protected framework (walled cultivate ) Service driven Users A typical stage outline Dynamic applications Ubiquitous Open engineering Changing the Paradigm

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Requirement in light of ITU 1 Gbps information speed when stationary 100 Mbps information speed when moving Search for 4G innovation Meeting the prerequisite with least data transfer capacity will be the champ User's Expectation Multimedia application Operating with extended periods Become an individual portable office if conceivable 4G - The Future Technology

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Handset's advancement went through an uneasy and precarious past AT&T did not get any IPR expense by creating auto telephones yet Motorola did TDMA was the principal computerized framework. It can not contend with CDMA for voice limit nor rival OFDM for rapid information transmission 3G may not be an overall framework. It has lost its planning B3G will be the between time framework for 4G may fulfill the clients as an individual portable office Conclusion