PC Engineering History of Processing

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Present day math device is an enhanced assortment from Japan after the World War II ... 1976, Steve Jobs begins Apple Computer (8-bit) 1981, IBM created 16 bit IBM PC ...

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PC Architecture History of Computing Lynn Choi Dept. of Computer and Electronics Engineering

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History of Computing Abacus: showed up around 24 0 BC Developed in Babylonia Imported to China and enhanced generously around 1200's BC Modern math device is an enhanced assortment from Japan after the World War II Pascal's Arithmetic Machine (Pascaline) French mathematician, physicist, scholar, rationalist The main mechanical number cruncher Developed in 1642 (just at 19 years of age) just include/subtract 10 toothed wheels Leibniz's Calculator Developed in 1673 in light of Pascal's machine Can do include/subtract/increase/separate

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History of Computing Analytic Engine The principal autonomic figuring machine Designed by Charles Babbage in 1833 Like today's PC, it has focal preparing unit, memory stockpiling, programming directions, punch card inputs, and printed yields 50 decimal digit estimations Memory of 1000 digits Operated by steam control Some individuals allude Babbage "the Father of Computing" Ada: the primary software engineer utilizing the Analytic Engine Subroutines, circles, restrictive hops

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History of Computing Turing Machine A scientific registering model proposed by Alan M. Turing in 1936 Abstract image controlling gadget that can reenact the rationale of any PC Theoretical foundation to cutting edge PCs ACM Turing Award – the Novel prize in Computer Science Contribute to the accompanying ideas Provide hypothetical foundation to advanced broadly useful PCs Stored program idea High-level programming dialect idea Recursive capacity idea Use of twofold codes Consists of vast straight tape, read/compose head, control unit TM=(s i , d j , d k , R or L or N, s l ) Mapping table gives state move capacities, i.e. given a state and an image, eradicate image/revise image, move R/W make a beeline for left or right, and go to another state

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ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) 1 st universally useful electronic PC Designed by John Mauchly and John Presper Eckert at Upenn Funded by US BRL (Ballistic Research Lab) to create range and direction tables for new weapons Until then, BRL representative more than 200 individuals with desktop adding machines to settle the essential ballistics conditions The proposition acknowledged in 1943, the machine finished in 1946, and disassembled in 1955 Used for H-bomb look into Characteristics 30 tons, 15000 square feet, 18000 vacuum tubes, 140 KW control dispersal Decimal machine 20 collectors every holding 10-digit decimal number Each digit is spoken to by a ring of 10 vacuum tubes Manually customized by setting switches and stopping/unplugging links 5,000 options for every second

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The Von Neumann Machine - IAS By von Neumann at the Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies Von Neumann was a specialist on the ENIAC extend Stored program idea The capacity to store its guidelines in its interior memory and process them in its number-crunching unit, so that over the span of a calculation they might be executed as well as changed at electronic rates Included in the proposition for EDVAC in 1945 Started in 1946 and finished in 1952 All cutting edge PC frameworks are called Von Neumann machines a similar structure and similar capacities Processor, memory, information sources, and yields Stored program idea, PC, MAR 1000 x 40 bit words Binary number 2 x 20 bit guidelines

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The Von Neumann Machine & IAS

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Staff of IAS Computer Project

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Von Neumann - Biography Born 28 December 1903, Budapest, Hungary; Died 8 February 1957, Washington DC; Brilliant mathematician, synthesizer, and promoter of the put away program idea, whose intelligent outline of the IAS turned into the model of the vast majority of its successors - the von Neumann Architecture. Von Neumann was a kid wonder, naturally introduced to a managing an account family is Budapest, Hungary. At the point when just six years of age he could isolate eight-digit numbers in his mind. He got his initial training in Budapest, under the tutelage of M. Fekete, with whom he distributed his first paper at 18 years old. Entering the University of Budapest in 1921, he contemplated Chemistry, moving his base of studies to both Berlin and Zurich before accepting his confirmation in 1925 in Chemical Engineering. He came back to his first love of science in finishing his doctoral degree in 1928. he immediately picked up a notoriety in set hypothesis, variable based math, and quantum mechanics. During a period of political agitation in focal Europe, he was welcome to visit Princeton University in 1930 , and when the Institute for Advanced Studies was established there in 1933, he was delegated to be one of the first six Professors of Mathematics , a position which he held for the rest of his life. At the incitement and sponsorship of Oskar Morganstern, von Neumann and Kurt Gödel got to be US subjects in time for their leeway for wartime work. There is a tale which recounts Morganstern driving them to their migration meet, in the wake of having found out about the US Constitution and the historical backdrop of the nation. On the drive there Morganstern inquired as to whether they had any inquiries which he could reply. Gödel answered that he had no inquiries yet he had discovered some coherent irregularities in the Constitution that he needed to get some information about. Morganstern firmly prescribed that he not make inquiries, simply answer them! Amid 1936 through 1938 Alan Turing was a graduate understudy in the Department of Mathematics at Princeton and did his exposition under Alonzo Church. Von Neumann welcomed Turing to remain on at the Institute as his colleague however he wanted to come back to Cambridge; after a year Turing was included in war work at Bletchley Park. This visit happened not long after Turing's distribution of his 1934 paper "On Computable Numbers with an Application to the Entscheidungs-issue " which included the ideas of intelligent outline and the widespread machine. It must be reasoned that von Neumann knew about Turing's thoughts, however whether he connected them to the plan of the IAS Machine ten years after the fact is flawed. [5] http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/VonNeumann.html

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Structure of IAS Computer

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Structure of IAS Computer

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IAS Instruction Set 21 Instructions Data exchange: move information amongst memory and ALU registers Arithmetic: +, - , *,/, left move, right move Branch: genuine bounce, contingent hop Address alter (self-adjusting code): Permit locations to be processed in the ALU and after that embedded into guidelines put away in memory. Registers Memory Buffer Register (MBR) Hold the word got or to be put away in Memory Address Register (MAR) Hold the deliver of memory to be perused or composed Instruction Register (IR) Hold the 8-bit opcode Instruction Buffer Register (IBR) Hold the right hand direction from a word in memory Program Counter (PC) Hold the address of the following guideline combine to be gotten

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Commercial Computers in 1950 " s Sperry-Rand Corporation Eckert & Mauchly Computer Corporation was established in 1947 Merged with Sperry-Rand Corporation UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) I Used for (populace) statistics in 1950 UNIVAC II Higher execution, bigger memory, upward similarity Provides in reverse similarity from UNIVAC and secure client base IBM Start as a hardware organization for punch card IBM 701, 1953 The principal business put away program PC Used for logical application IBM 702, 1955 Business applications

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Computer Generations 1 st era PCs Vacuum tube, 1946-1957, 40K operations/sec 2 nd era PCs Transistor, 1958-1964, 200 K operations/sec 3 rd era PCs SSI, MSI, 1965-1971, 1 M operations/sec 4 th era PCs LSI, 1972-1977, 10 M operations/sec 5 th era PCs VLSI, 1978 to date, 100 M operations/sec

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The 2 nd Generation Computers Transistors imagined Replaced vacuum tubes Smaller, less expensive, less warmth dissemination Invented by William Shockley et al. in 1947 at Bell Labs IBM 7094 (7000 arrangement) – 1962 Data channel Independent IO Processor IOP has its own direction set IOP autonomously forms information and yield once started by CPU PDP-1 - 1957 DEC was established in 1957 Begins minicomputer time

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The 3 rd Generation Computers IC (Integrated Circuit) – semiconductors Moore's law – Intel " s prime supporter "The quantity of transistors that could be put on a solitary chip is multiplied at regular intervals.", 1965 Memory limit quadruples at regular intervals The quantity of transistors and the execution of a microchip is quadrupled like clockwork IBM System/360, 1964 Incompatible with 700/7000 arrangement, yet awesome achievement Family of models (model 30, 40, 50, 65, 75) a similar guideline set, same OS Increasing velocity, IO ports, memory estimate DEC PDP-8, 1964 $16,000, sufficiently little to put on a lab seat 50,000 units sold

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Growth in CPU transistor number

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The 4 th and 5 th Generation Computers Semiconductor memory Replaces attractive center memory Non-ruinous, much speedier than center 1970, Developed by Fairchild , 256 bits of memory Since 1974, cost per bit dropped lower than center memory 12 eras - 256, 1K, 4K, 16K, 64K, 256K, 1M, 4M, 16M, 64M, 256M, 1G Microprocessor 1971, Intel built up the initial 4 bit microchip 4004 1972, 8008 (8-bit) 1974, 8080 (the principal broadly useful microchip) 1978, 8086 (16-bit) 1982, 80286 (20 bit address, 16MB memory) 1985, 80386 (32-bit) 1989, 80486 the initially pipelined processor, incorporated FPU 1993, Pentium (superscalar) 1995, Pentium Pro (OOO, branch forecast) 2000, Pentium 4 (superpipelining), Itanium (64-bit, VLIW)

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The 4 th and 5 th Generation Computers PC period starts 1976, Steve Jobs begins Apple Computer (8-bit) 1981, IBM created 16 bit IBM PC Microsoft created MS DOS 198