Part Outline: Applications and Processing of Ceramics

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2. Artistic materials have moderately high liquefying temperature and are weak ? strain solidifying can't be appliedSome pottery framed by powder squeezing. include drying and terminating,

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Section Outline: Applications and Processing of Ceramics Chapter 13: Applications and Processing of Ceramics Short audit of glass/earthenware production applications and handling (13.1-13.3,13.8,13.10)

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Formation and preparing of Ceramics Ceramic materials have moderately high liquefying temperature and are fragile  strain solidifying can't be connected Some pottery framed by powder squeezing. include drying and terminating,… Sintering: powder squeezing + terminating beneath softening T Cements shaped from a liquid glue that solidifies by synthetic responses Glasses created by entire dissolving of crude fixings

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Applications of Ceramics Compressive quality is regularly ten circumstances rigidity. Straightforwardness to light  optical applications (windows, photographic cameras, telescopes, and so on) Good warm protection  broilers, outside tiles of the Shuttle orbiter, and so forth. Great electrical confinement  used to bolster conveyors in electrical and electronic applications. Great compound inactivity  applications in responsive situations.

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Silicate Glasses Non-crystalline silicates (SiO 2 ) containing different oxides (CaO, NaO 2 , K 2 O, Al 2 O 3 ) Containers, windows, focal points, fiberglass, and so forth . Illustration: Container/window glasses contain ~ 30 wt% oxides (CaO, Na 2 O) whose cations are fused inside SiO 4 organize: arrange modifiers . Quartz sand + pop fiery remains or limestone

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Properties of Glasses (I) Solidification is continuous , through a thick stage (consistency expanding with diminishing T) without an unmistakable liquefying temperature Specific volume (1/thickness) does not have sudden move at settled temperature. Demonstrates an adjustment in slant at the glass-move temperature

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Viscosity (from Chapter 12) Viscosity : a measure of non-crystalline (glass or fluid) material's imperviousness to distortion High-thickness liquids oppose stream; low-consistency liquids stream effectively. Consistency: How promptly a moving layer of liquid drags adjoining layers alongside it. Units are Pa-s: Poises (P) 1 P = 0.1 Pa-s Viscosity of water at room temp is ~ 10 - 3 P Viscosity of common glass at room temp >> 10 16 P

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Properties of Glasses (II) Important temperatures(viscosity) in glass Melting point : thickness = 100 P, beneath this consistency (higher T) glass is fluid Working point : consistency = 10 4 P, glass is effortlessly twisted Softening point : thickness = 410 7 P, most extreme T at which a glass piece keeps up shape for quite a while Annealing point : thickness = 10 13 P, unwind inward burdens (dispersion) Strain point : consistency = 3x10 14 P, over this thickness, crack happens before plastic misshapening Glass framing operations happen amongst softening and working focuses

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Properties of Glasses (II) Important temperatures in glasses can be characterized by consistency

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Heat treatment of Glasses Annealing: lift temperature to expel warm anxieties coming about because of inhomogeneous temperatures amid cooling (like toughening of metals) Tempering: warming glass above glass move temperature however underneath softening point; then extinguish in an air fly or oil shower. The inside: cools later than outside, tries to contract while in a plastic state after outside has as of now get to be distinctly inflexible. Causes lingering compressive weights on surface and tractable worries inside. In break: split needs to conquer leftover compressive anxiety, making safety glass less vulnerable to crack. Utilized as a part of car windshields, glass entryways, eyeglass focal points, and so forth

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Summary Make beyond any doubt you comprehend dialect and ideas: Glass hardening Glass move temperature Melting point (glass)