Part I: Evolutionary History

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Part I: Transformative History. Part 1: Tetrapod Connections and Transformative Systematics. What is Herpetology?.

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Part I: Evolutionary History Chapter 1: Tetrapod Relationships & Evolutionary Systematics

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What is Herpetology? … is it the investigation of the herpes infection? … hello this sounds Greek to me! The word herpetology depends on the Greek herpes or the Latin herpeton , meaning a crawling or creeping thing. Subsequently, Herpetology is the logical investigation of dreadful little creature things, particularly creatures of land and water and reptiles.

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Systematics The two unmistakable gatherings are Amphibians and Reptiles. Both clades emerged inside the Tetrapoda (Greek for "four feet"). Tetrapoda is a clade of hard fish that initially showed up in the Paleozoic Era. These fish took the main "stride" from water to arrive. What's more, one of their most punctual different gatherings turned into the Amphibians. Another Tetrapod gather touched base amid the Carboniferous, and these creatures were called Anthracosaurs. They engendered ashore without water and were not inclined to parching. Today this gathering is spoken to by reptiles (counting winged animals) and warm blooded animals.

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The polarity of Amphibians & Reptiles If Amphibians & Reptiles are not every others nearest relatives, why has herpetology kept on studying these two gatherings as a solitary logical interest? Verifiable dormancy Tradition Many parts of the lives and science of these two clades are integral. Can be examined utilizing comparable strategies or methods of examination. Promote the organic similitudes of A & R have made them perfect models in manipulative or exploratory biology, and so forth

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Lissamphibia Consist of 3 Orders-Gymnophiona-Caecilians externally take after night crawlers, and are marked with the hub base name Gymnophiona (exposed snake), and the stem base name Apoda (without foot). Every single surviving caecilian need appendages, are firmly annulated, and have shot molded heads & tails. This morphology mirrors the tunneling way of life of these tropical creatures of land and water. (33 genera; 170 species) Caudata-Salamanders externally take after a hybrid of a reptile and a frog. They are marked with the hub based name Caudata (having tail) and the stem-based name Urodela (tail unmistakable). Lizards have round and hollow bodies, long tails, particular heads and necks, & all around created appendages, despite the fact that a couple of lizards have incredibly decreased appendages or even have lost the rear appendages. By and large the lizards are a genuinely various gathering that are spoken to by numerous environmental sorts, including absolutely amphibian, tunneling, earthbound, & arboreal species. (66 genera; 515+ species) Dermophis mexicanus Caeciliidae, Mexican Tailless Tropical America, eastern & western central Africa, Seychelles Islands, India, Burma Ambystoma tigrinum Ambystomatidae, Mole Salamanders NA toward the southern edge of the Mexican Plateau

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Lissamphibia Con't Anura-Frogs are given the hub based name Anura (without tail) and the stem-based name Salienta (bouncing). They are not at all like different vertebrates in having hearty, tailless bodies a consistent head & body (no very much characterized neck) & all around created appendages The rear appendages are regularly double the length of the body, and their morphology mirrors their bipedal bouncing. Be that as it may, not all frogs hop or even bounce; some taxa are absolutely sea-going and utilize a synchronous rear appendage kick for impetus, while different species including earthly and arboreal structures, walk. Among creatures of land and water frogs are the most speciose and demonstrate the most elevated morphological, physiological, and environmental assorted qualities and the broadest geographic event. (344 genera; 4810 species) Phyllobates terribilis Dendrobatidae, Poison Frogs Southern Central America and northern South America through the Amazonian Basin to Atlantic timberland

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Extant Reptiles The living reptiles comprises of 3 clades: turtles, archosaurs, & lepidosaurs. This plan can be further separated into 5 Orders Reptilia>Parareptilia> Testudines (O.)- Turtles Cryptodira (subo.)- Hidden-neck turtles Pleurodira (subo.)- Side-neck turtles Reptilia>Diapsida> Sauria Archosauria-Crocodylia (O.)- Crocodylians Aves (O.)- Birds Lepidosauria-Sphenodonita (O.)- Tuataras Squamata (O.)- Lacertilia (subo.)- Lizards Serpentes (subo.)- Snakes

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Testudines Turtles called by the hub based name Testudines (tortoises), like frogs, can't be mixed up for whatever other creature. Arrangement: Reptilia, Parareptilia, Testudines Body encased with an upper and lower hard shell (carapace & plastron, individually) Moderately speciose, they go from completely amphibian (expect egg statement) to completely earthbound, from dwarfs to goliaths, & from herbivores to carnivores. (250-280 species) Chelus fimbriatus (Matamata; Chelidae) Amazon Drainage Platemys platycephala (Twist-neck Turtle; Chelidae) N.SA

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Living Archosaurs incorporate crocodylians and feathered creatures. In spite of the fact that the archosaur birthplace of feathered creatures has been for some time remembered, it was just as of late that their "actual" transformative arrangement be delineated, subsequently advancing winged animals as reptiles. Crocodylians, called by the hub based name Crocodylia (reptile), are heavily clad by tough skin and osteoderms. The prolong head, body and tail overshadow the short solid appendages. Crocs are a little gathering of predaceous, semi amphibian reptiles that swim with solid, intense strokes of the tail. Their appendages take into consideration versatility ashore, albeit earthly exercises are normally constrained to luxuriating and nesting.(18 genera; 22-24 species Archosaurs Paleosuchus palpebrosus Alligatoridae Cuvier's Dwarf Caiman SA, Amazon Drainage

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Lepidosaurs Include the tuatara, snakes, reptiles & amphisbaenians Tuatara Classification: Reptilia, Diapsida, Sauria, Lepidosauria, Sphenodontia 2 types of tuataras, alluded to by the hub based name Sphenodontida (wedge tooth) and the stem-based name Rhynchocephalia (nose or nose head), are reptile like however speak to and early disparity inside the lepidosaurian clade. Today, the tuataras happen just on islets off the shoreline of New Zealand. Sphenodon punctatus Northern Tuatara NE bank of N. Island & western Cook Strait, NZ

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Lepidosaurs Con't Chamaeleo calyptratus Chamaeleonidae, Chameleons Africa, Madagascar, India, Sri Lanka, Saudi Arabia, S. Spain, & the Mediterranean drift The hub based name Squamata (textured) incorporates the reptiles, snakes & amphisbaenians (420genera; 4800species) These gatherings are the most different and speciose of the living reptiles, possessing living spaces extending from tropical seas to mild peaks. They show an assortment of body structures, shapes and sizes. Most taxa are earthly or arboreal, however many snakes are semi amphibian. A couple snakes are absolutely oceanic, and some are underground. Snakes are the best of limbless or lessened limbed reptiles. Varanus timorensis Varanidae, Monitors Warm Temperate and Tropical Africa, Asia & Australia

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Lepidosaurs Con't Amphisbaena fulginosa Amphisbaenidae Great Antillies, S. Amer., Africa, Spain, Turkey

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Lepidosaurs Con't Cemphora coccinea (Scarlet Snake, SE US) Colubridae (Colubrinae) Worldwide Naja nigricollis (Black-necked spitting cobra, Sub-Saharan Africa) Elapidae (Elapinae; Southern NA to southern SA, Africa, southern Asia to southern Australia Sistrurus miliarius (Pygmy Rattlesnake, SE US) Viperidae (Crotalidae, NW), Worldwide Bitis gabonica (Gabon Viper, Sub-Saharan Africa) Viperidae (Viperinae, OW), Wolrdwide

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Lepidosaurs Con't Boa constrictor (Common Boa, C&S Amer.) Boidae; Western N Amer. to S. subtropical S Amer, West Indies, C. Africa to South Asia, Madagascar, & southwest Pacific Islands Python curtus (Blood Python, Indoneisa) Pythonidae; African, India, Indo-Australia) Eunectes murinus (Green Anaconda, Amazonian) Boidae: Western N Amer. to S. subtropical S Amer, West Indies, C. Africa to South Asia, Madagascar, & southwest Pacific Islands Western N Amer. to S. subtropical S Amer, West Indies, C. Africa to South Asia, Madagascar, & southwest Pacific Islands Liasis albertisii (Dalbert's Python, N. Torres Is.) Pythonidae; Africa, India, Indo-Australia

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Relationships among Vertebrates Middle Devonian (380-400 mybp) a fish predecessor offered ascend to the main tetrapods Approx 30-40 mybp, the tetrapods split into 2 ancestries, creatures of land and water & anthracosaurs, with offered ascend to surviving tetrapods. Plants, similar to creatures, were just start to emanate into an earthbound situation from a totally sea-going presence. Move from fish to tetrapod happened in the water, & the most punctual tetrapods were exceptionally amphibian. In any case, the recommendation that tetrapods advanced from fish that utilized adjusted balances to escape from drying waterways is no longer broadly acknowledged. Appendages likely emerged in a sea-going condition, maybe to stalk prey in substantial vegetation, or maybe as props to allow airborne breath and development in the shallow waters or swamps. Tetrapods most likely have a freshwater birthplace attributable to their kidney structure and general physiology & a dominance of early tetrapod fossils from nonmarine silt. A Sarcopterygian predecessor started the development from an altogether sea-going way of life to an earthbound one. These prototetrapods, similar to fish, were not able make due ashore.

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Life in an earthbound domain Aerial Respiration by means of lungs and perhaps skin (creatures of land and water) Development of very much characterized appendages Increased quality of vertebral segment & skull Pectoral support got to be distinctly confined from skull Increased skull enunciation through the occipital condyles & chart book. This enhanced inertial encouraging and breathing over the waters surface. Sense organs moved from oceanic to airborne discernment. Horizontal line just worked in amphibian phase of life cycle or in sea-going species Hearing & center ear structures showed up Eyes developed to s