Part Goals

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2. Frameworks Architecture, Fifth Edition. Part Goals. Portray basic ideas of content and picture representation and showcase including advanced representation of grayscale and shading, bitmaps, and picture pressure techniquesDescribe the qualities and usage innovation of video presentation devicesList and depict the three prevalent manual data advances.

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Chapter Goals Describe regular ideas of content and picture portrayal and show including advanced portrayal of grayscale and shading, bitmaps, and picture pressure procedures Describe the attributes and usage innovation of video show gadgets List and depict the three dominating manual info advances Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Chapter Goals (proceeded with) Understand printer qualities and innovation Describe different sorts of optical information gadgets including mark sensors, standardized identification perusers, scanners, and computerized cameras Identify the attributes of sound I/O gadgets, and clarify how they work Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Basic Print and Display Concepts Share many elements Character portrayal techniques Measurement frameworks Methods of producing shading Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Matrix-Oriented Image Composition Display surfaces Fonts Color Numeric pixel content Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Display Surface Commonly utilized: paper, cathode beam tubes, level board shows Divided into lines and segments like an expansive grid Each phone (pixel) speaks to one straightforward part of a picture Resolution Number of pixels showed per direct estimation unit Stated in dabs per inch (dpi) Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Fonts Collection of characters of comparable style and appearance Usually measured in focuses (one seventy-second of an inch), which alludes to stature of characters Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Color RGB (added substance hues) Generates shading by blending red, green, and blue CMY (subtractive hues) Generates shading utilizing cyan (nonappearance of red), maroon (nonattendance of green), and yellow (nonattendance of blue) CMYK shading Four-color plan utilizing a different dark color (K) Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Numeric Pixel Content Bitmap Stored set of numeric pixel depictions Monochrome show Displays one of two hues Requires just a single piece for every pixel Grayscale show Displays dark, white, and shades of dim Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Numeric Pixel Content Palette A table of hues Number of bits used to speak to every pixel decides table size Dithering Generates shading approximations by setting little spots of various hues in an interlocking example Half-conditioning (grayscale dithering) Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Image Storage Requirements Depends on number of bits that speak to every pixel and on picture tallness and width in pixels Can be diminished with bitmap pressure Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) All pressure strategies are lossy, bringing about some loss of picture quality Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Image Description Languages (IDL) Address downsides of bitmaps (substantial size and gadget reliance) by putting away pictures minimally Can speak to picture segments in a few ways Embedded text styles Vectors, bends, and shapes Embedded bitmaps Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Adobe PostScript and Portable Document Format Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Video Display Character-arranged video show terminals (VDTs) Video controllers Video screens Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Character-Oriented VDTs Integrated console and video show surface VDTs Most basic type of video show in 1970s and a lot of 1980s (until PCs) Network PCs or thin customers New class of VDT in 1990s Limited handling abilities Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Video Controller Enables correspondence between PC framework and screen Accepts orders and information transmitted by means of a transport from the CPU Generates TV-style simple video flag, which is transmitted to the screen Refresh cycle and invigorate rate; video RAM; double porting; illustrations quickening agents Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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A video controller contains RAM, a microchip, and installed programming. Frameworks Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Video Monitors Separate from consoles Common sorts Cathode beam tubes (CRTs) Liquid gem shows (LCDs) Plasma shows Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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CRT Enclosed vacuum tube; electron bar is engaged toward front surface of the tube, which is covered in phosphor Technology generally old; has burdens Physical size and weight Power utilization Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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LCD Contains lattice of fluid gems sandwiched between two polarizing channel boards Active and aloof grid shows Manufactured with thin film transistor (TFT) innovation Compared with CRTs Less difference Reduced size, weight, and power utilization Higher cost Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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How a LCD works Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Plasma Displays Combine components of CRT and LCD innovation Flat board, dynamic network gadgets Actively produce shaded light close surface of the show; great splendor and review Require more power than LCDs, not as much as CRTs Shortcomings Limited operational lifetime Larger pixel estimate lessens near picture quality when seen from short separations Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Plasma shows have no backdrop illumination and no shading channels; every pixel contains a gas that transmits bright light when power is connected. Frameworks Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Printers Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Inkjet Printers Most basic printing innovation Prints with fluid ink set specifically onto paper Uses mechanical development or warmth to compel ink out of spout Paper is drawn past moving print head Resolution is up to 600 dpi Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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An inkjet printer has expendable print cartridges that contain ink stores, a lattice of ink spouts, and electrical wiring and contact focuses. Frameworks Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Printer Communication Impact printers ASCII or Unicode characters Inkjet and laser printers Use pixels as central yield unit Have moderately vast supports IDLs are generally used to enhance printer execution Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Laser printers work with an electrical charge and the fascination of ink to that electrical charge. Frameworks Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Plotters Printers that create line drawings on wide sheets or moves of paper Use inkjet innovation Ideal for diagrams and other designing drawings Also called expansive arrangement printers Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Manual Input Devices Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Keyboards Translate keystrokes specifically into electrical signs Generate bit stream yields (filter code) with a console controller Can interface with PC in different ways (e.g., PS/2, USB, remote) Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Pointing Devices Mouse Trackball Joystick Input cushions (e.g., digitizer tablet) Infrared identifier Photosensor Pressure-delicate cushion Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Optical Input Devices Detect light reflected off a printed surface or question into a photosensor Categories Mark and example sensors Image catch gadgets Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Mark Sensors and Bar-Code Scanners Mark sensor Scans for light or dull imprints at particular areas on a page (e.g., institutionalized numerous decision test) Bar code scanner Detects particular examples of vertical bars of changing thickness and dividing Typically used to track substantial quantities of stock things Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Advanced checking innovation can now read two-dimensional poet codes. Frameworks Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Optical Scanners Generate bitmap portrayals of printed pictures Bright white light sparkles on the page; reflected light is distinguished by a variety of photosensors Optical character acknowledgment (OCR) gadgets Combine optical filtering innovation with clever elucidation of bitmap substance Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Digital Cameras Employ optical checking innovation to catch single or still pictures and store them as crude compacted bitmaps Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Portable Data Capture Devices Combine a console, stamp or standardized tag scanner, and remote correspondences to a wired base station or PC framework Provide quick information catch (e.g., distribution center stock control, bundle directing and following) Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Audio I/O Devices Sound: a simple waveform that can be inspected and put away as computerized information Various scientific changes change over complex sounds to a solitary numeric portrayal Sampling and playback depend on simple to-advanced converters (ADC) and advanced to-simple converters (DAC) Monophonic versus polyphonic Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Purposes of Sound Generation and Recognition General-reason sound yield (e.g., notices) General-reason sound information (e.g., computerized recording for voice email messages) Voice summon input Speech acknowledgment Speech era Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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Speech Recognition Conceptually basic, however convoluted by speaker fluctuation, phoneme moves and blends, and ongoing preparing Most current frameworks are speaker subordinate Digital flag processor (DSP) Specialized to handle persistent surges of sound or graphical information Commonly installed in sound and video equipment Systems Archi

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