Part Eight

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Part Eight. The Tenth Week. Key focuses . Picking a Code Semantic Taboos and Doublespeaks Dialect and sex. challenges. Diglossia Bilingualism and multilingualism Code-exchanging Dialect utilization of the two diverse sexual orientation. 8.3 Picking a Code. 8.3.1 Diglossia

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Part Eight The Tenth Week

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Key focuses Choosing a Code Linguistic Taboos and Euphemisms Language and sex

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troubles Diglossia Bilingualism and multilingualism Code-exchanging Language utilization of the two diverse sexual orientation

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8.3 Choosing a Code 8.3.1 Diglossia 8.3.2 Blilngualism and multilingualism 8.3.3 Code-exchanging

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8.3.1 The Definition of Diglossia, a term initially acquainted by Ferguson in 1959 with allude to a sociolinguistic circumstance like bilingualism, for the most part depicts a circumstance in which two altogether different assortments of dialect exist together in a discourse group, each with an unmistakable scope of absolutely social capacity and proper for specific circumstances. Two altogether different assortments of a similar dialect are utilized, for two unique arrangements of capacities. A sitration of this kind is called diglossia.

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High assortment or H-assortment ( 优势变体 ) and Low assortment or L-assortment ( 劣势变体 ) Both assortments are standardiezed to some degree, are felt to be options by local speakers, and as a rule have exceptional names. For the most part, the more standard assortment is known as the High assortment (H) or H-assortment ( 优势变体 ) , the other is known as the Low assortment or L-assortment ( 劣势变体 ). The High assortment is learnt in school, has a tendency to be utilized as a part of sermon, political addresses, addresses, in the media, and inpoetry and letters; and it has more noteworthy social eminence. The low assortment is utilized as a part of family discussions, and other moderately casual settings.

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Examples of H-assortment and L-assortment Ex. (1) The German talking some portion of Switzerland. (2) Diglossia additionally exists in most Arabic-talking nations where the High assortment is utilized as a part of religious discourses and formal political talks, while the low assortment is the nearby tongue of conversational Arabic. (3) Diglossia existed with Latin as the High assortment and neighborhood dialects, for example, English and French as the Low assortment.

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8.3.2 Bilingualism and multilingualism Bilingualism alludes to a situatin where two dialects are utilized by an individual or by a gathering of speaker, for example, the tenants of a specific area or a natin.

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Horizontal bilingualism ( 横向性双语现象 ) and Diagona l bilingualism ( 倾斜性双语现象 ) If the dialect talked in a bilingual society have break even with status in the official, social, and family life of the general public, the circumstance is alluded to as level bilingualism ( 横向性双语现象 ) , while diagona l bilingualism ( 倾斜性双语现象 ) gets when just a single dialect has official standard status.

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Domains Regardless of the distinctions in the appproximation of immaculate bilingualism, most bilingual groups make them thing in like manner, that is, a genuinely clear utilitarian separation of the two dialects in regard of discourse circumstances known as areas .

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Example of space A bilingual Puerto Rican living in the US may utilize Spanish as the dialect of the home, un the feeling that it would dependably by utilized as a part of talking casually with different memebers of the family at home about residential matters. That same individual may utilize English in the Employment Domain in the workplace, or at home when the theme of a conversationdoes not concern anything in the Home Domain.

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Multilingualism alludes to a circumstance where at least three dialects are utilized by an individual or by a gathering of speakers, for example, the tenants of a specific area or a country.

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Examples of Multilingualism Ex. Multilingualism exists among the Tukano of the northwest Amazon, on the fringe amongst Colombia and Brazil.

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8.3.3 Code-exchanging Bilinguals regularly switch between their two dialects or dialect assortments amidst a discussion. This marvel is called code-exchanging .

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(√) Code-exchanging happens regularly. For a certain something, each individual needs to assume numerous parts in the public eye as mother, father, educator, patient or customer. Diverse parts require distinctive types of dialect. Also, there are such a variety of various circumstances for dialect utilize.

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Situational code-exchanging ( 情景语码转换 ) and Metaphorical code-exchanging (隐喻语码转换) Situational code-exchanging happens when the dialect utilized changes as indicated by the circumstance in which the members get themselves: they talk one dialect in one situationa and another in an alternate one.

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8.4 Linguistic Taboos and Euphemisms Some words are infrequently utilized as a part of formal settings since they are socially unsatisfactory in suc settings.

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Taboo A word that we are hesitant to utilize might be known as an unthinkable word. "Unthinkable" is from Tongan dialect "tabu" , a Polynesian dialect, in late eighteenth century and brought into English by Captain Cook, which signifies "set apart, illegal". Ex. "four-letter words"

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Taboo Linguistic unthinkable begins from social forbidden. At the point when a demonstration is unthinkable, reference to this demonstration may likewise get to be distinctly forbidden. Forbidden words and expressions mirror the specific social coustoms and perspectives of a specific culture.

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Examples of forbidden Sacred dialect was unthinkable. "bleeding" is an unthinkable word that some "respectable" individuals think of it as a horid word since it alludes to the blood of Christ. Latin words sound "logical" while their local Anglo-Saxom partners are frequently consideren forbidden. In many societies, words identifying with sex, sex organs, and regular real capacities make up a substantial piece of forbidden vocabulary.

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Euphemism A more worthy substitute of a forbidden word might be known as a doublespeak . The word doublespeak is taken from Greek word euphemismos , and signifies "sound great" or "great discourse" or "to talk with great words". A doublespeak is a respectful or more wonderful word or expression you use rather than a more straightforward one keeping in mind the end goal to abstain from irritating others.

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Taboo and doublespeak The presence of unthinkable words or forbidden thoughts empowers the creation o f code words, since code words might just fill in as plite substitutes for unthinkable dialect. Forbidden and code word are, consequently, two countenances of a similar correspondence coin.

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Examples Euphemism Denotation Pass away pass on Indisposed wiped out Economically denied poor Low-wage dresses chep garments Dignified marton old lady Ngative investment funds obligations Disabled handicapped person Retirement annuity ole-age annuity Unemployment advantage dole Take modern activity go on strike Chemical reliance dury habit Under the climate sick Low IQ/moderate idiotic Companion creature pet Disposal officer/Sanitation design dustman Correctional office jail

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(√) Euphemisms are all over. Ex. Demise and kicking the bucket: tp pass away, to terminate, to b no more, to rest in peace, to be out of his wretchedness, to go to meet his Maker, to traverse the Great Divide, to go to his last resting place, go to a superior place.

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8.5 Language and Gender The investigation of dialect in connection to sexual orientation has two fundamental concentrations: First, it has been seen by numerous etymologists that men and ladies talk in an unexpected way; besides, it has been seen by numerous women's activists and by a few etymologists that men and ladies are talked about in an unexpected way, and it is frequently asserted that the dialect is prejudicial against ladies.

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Different talking methods for both genders (1) In a similar sexual orientation sets having conversationsl ladies genereally examine their perosnal emotions more than men. (2) Men appear to incline toward non-individual points, for example, games and news. (3) Men have a tendency to react to a declaration of emotions or issues by giving exhortation on arrangements. (4) Women will probably specify individual encounters that interface with the other woman's. (5) In blended sexual orientation sets having discussions, the rate of men interfering with ladies is more prominent than the turn around.

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It has been recommended that there is a lot of additional pliteness in female discourse which makes utilization of the accompanying phonetic gadgets (i) Frequent utilization of fences like "I', perplexed that… ", "I don't know but rather… ", "sort of", and "kind of". For instance, "John is somewhat short" rather than "John is short". (ii) Abundant utilization of label inquiries as in "The address is unpleasantly intriguing, isn't it?" (iii) Greater utilization of qualifiers and intensifiers than men: "horrendously", "flawless", "frightfully", and " fascinationg", among others. (iv) Preference ofr utilization of the standard type of dialect on many events when men would not.

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(√) Language reflects sexism in the public arena Language itself is not sexist, but rather it can encode sexist dispositions. Ex. My cousin - the cousin is a man.

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Assignments Euphemisms abund for "latrine" (which is itself a code word). What are some of them? Will you judge them as far as worthiness for vrious sorts of social capacities and itneractions? There are different recommendations why ladies have a tendency to estimated more intently to the standard dialect than men do. What do you consider to be important variables? Why?