Part 9 - The Diffusion of Languages

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´╗┐Section 9 - The Diffusion of Languages Tracing Linguistic Diversification The Language Tree Theories of Language Diffusion to the Pacific and the Americas Influence on Individual Languages

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Tracing Linguistic Diversification Hints from Analysis of "Sound Shift" -Milk - lacte (Latin) - latta (Italian) - leche (Spanish) and lait (French) -Eight - octo (Latin) - otto - ocho - huit Such in reverse reconstruction,called " profound reproduction ", is vital to etymological research William Jones - found the likeness between Sanskrit (old Indian dialect) and Greek and Latin in eighteenth century Jacob Grimm, nineteenth century, proposed that related dialects have comparative consonants which would change after some time in an anticipated way(Softening of consonants)

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Proto Indo-European Language Ancestral dialect The ancestor of Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit Link Romance dialect and different dialects together To demonstrate its presence: 1) remaking 2) Locate the hearths 3) Diffusion courses must be followed 4) information of the lifestyles

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Figure 9-1 Indo-European Branches of the Language Tree

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Divergence - August Schleicher Language disparity - dialects separated over the long haul and space nineteenth century, recommended by August Schleicher, Language - tongues - detached lingos - discrete dialects, for instance - Spanish and Portuguese a now is Quebecois French dialects spread by migration dispersion, yet in some cases cause since a long time ago segregated dialects, troublesome for recreation Replacement Invasion of real dialect causes the substitution procedure which make the remaking of little branch of the dialect confuse. Dialect Island - Hungarian, Finnish, Estonia and Basque survive (fig 8-3)

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Theories of Language Diffusion Conquest Theory from Black Sea (proposed country, today Ukraine and Russia) spread westbound utilizing stallion and haggle, sound move speaks to a long stretch of westbound uniqueness, starting the dispersion and separation of Latin, Germanic and Slavonic dialects Celtic gathering was pushed toward the west of the Europe by more current dialect Agriculture Theory After more archeological records uncovered, Luca Cavalli-Sforza and Robert Ammerman suggested that agribusiness not triumph diffused the P-I-E dialects. Proposed country - Anatolia (Turkey), somewhere around 7 and 9000 years back.

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Agriculture Theory 1n 1984, Thomas Gamkrelidze and Victor Ivanov (who remade a large portion of Proto-Indo-European Language), proposed the source zone: Anatolia in present day Turkey Vocabulary - mountain streams, valleys, rapids, lakes, mountain trees, and other high-alleviation landforms

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Support for the Agr. Hypothesis Analyses of protein (quality)- demonstrates the proof of the separation rot from southern Turkey - Balkans-west and northern Europe. Cultivating spread into Europe. Each era (25yrs) Ag.frontier moved 11 miles. In 1500yrs, European boondocks would have been totally entered by agriculturists (Ammerman and Cavallo-Sforza)

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Drawback of the Ag. hypothesis Anatolian district not a decent place for cultivating and no archeological confirmation to bolster the way of life hearth Some lean toward the dispersal speculation (fig 9-2) and fig9-3

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The hunt down a superfamily Colin Renfrew - 3 Agr. Hearths 1) Anatolia - Indo-European 2) Western bend of Fertile Crescent - dialects of Africa and Arabia 3) Eastern circular segment of Fertile Crescent - Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, later supplanted by Indo-European

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3 Agri. hearths 1) Anatolian - > Europe Indo-Europ 2) Western curve of the Fertile Crescent - > N Africa and Arabia 3) Eastern circular segment of the Fertile Crescent - > Iran, Irag, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, later supplanted by Indo-Eur

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Russian Scholars-Vladislav Illich-Svitych and Aharon Dologopolsky Nostratic - pre-Proto-Indo-European reproduced by them freely No tamed plants or creatures in Nostratic - seeker gatherers,not agriculturists "dog=wolf" implies taming of wolves About 14,000 years prior, puppy bones were discovered - Nostratic may have been utilized.

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Nostratic Could be the tribal dialect of 1)Proto-Indo-European (Indo-European) 2)Kartvelian dialect (southern Caucasus), 3) Uralic-Altaic (Hungarian, Finnish, Turkish and Mongolian) 4) Dravidian and 5) Afro-Asiatic (Arabic) But, despite everything we don't recognize what offered ascend to Nostratic.

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Pacific Diffusion Taiwan Papuan from New Guinea,extended east-and westbound Austronesian started in beach front China - Taiwan (6000yrs prior) Puzzles-1)Why took so long from East Asia to islands off the Asia's drift 2) Complexity because of attack of different dialects or disconnection? 3) No Nostratic display for the dialects of the Asian terrain reproduced Philippines Malayo-Polynesian (Madagascar, Melaniesia Micronesia and Fiji) Polynesian (Maori in New Zealand)

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Austronesian - achieved Taiwan 6000 yrs prior (words for rice, field, cultivate, water wild ox, furrow and kayak) Figure 9-6 New Zealand - 1000 years back Australia - 50,000 to 60,000 years prior New Guinea - much prior Bellwood's Pacific-domain demonstrate demonstrates the phases in the extension of Austronesian dialects

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Diffusion in the Americas Native Americans, close to 40 millions before the European intrusion, originated from Asia by means of Bering area connect around 12,000 to 13,000 yrs back (since quite a while ago trusted) The Languages should be straightforward without other dialect's nearness, yet there are upwards of 200 American Indian Languages now. Disparity happened inside brief timeframe in the wake of intersection Bering Land Bridge. The Greenberg Hypothesis - three indigenous American Languages - 1)Oldest and biggest - Amerind, 2) Na-Dene-Canada, Alaska and Apache and Navajo and 3) Eskimo-Aleut

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Figure 9-7

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Greenberg Hypothesis If Amerind Languages are a similar family, the disparity more likely than not happened amid a time of more than 12000 yrs. Support and Controversies No appropriate recreation methods included He looked at comparative sounding words in contemporary dialects not sound-shifts. Strong archeological information, first rush of relocation may have happened 40,000 B.P. Dental information upheld three flood of relocation Majority of language specialists still uncertainty the 3-wave and 3-family theory. Yet, the discussion will be determined from Genetic and Archeological research, in the long run.

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Guatemala 15 30 N and 90 15 W Area - marginally littler than Tennessee Pop - 12.6 million - 1.89/1000 vagrants Roman Catholic, Protestant, indigenous Mayan convictions Languages - Spanish 60%, Amerindian 40% Literacy - half, 75% beneath neediness line

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Individual Languages Remain in contact with each other->keep the dialects alive Three parts impacts world's dialect mosaic: Writing-makes dialects balanced out Technology-collaboration between individuals Political Org - Limit get to/degree Middle Ages - innovation of printing press and ascent of country state are essential components to the current dialects. For example, Printings of Luther Bible in German and King James Bible in English set the standard types of dialects for Germany and English Chinese/Latin-scattered dialects over mainlands through Pol. organization. Dialects separated after Roman Empire fell

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