Part 9 Mutualism

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Chap.9 Mutualism. 2. Guide. Mutualism: a relationship between two creatures that advantages bothSeed dispersal mutualism: disperser obtains a feast and the plant gets its seed dispersedThrough mutualism, species are better capable together to secure assets or better ready to guard themselvesMutualism is hard to model; models tend to bring about runaway densities.

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Part 9 Mutualism 鄭先祐 生態主張者 Ayo

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RoadMap Mutualism: a relationship between two living beings that advantages both Seed dispersal mutualism: disperser procures a supper and the plant gets its seed scattered Through mutualism, species are better capable together to secure assets or better ready to protect themselves Mutualism is hard to model; models tend to bring about runaway densities Chap.9 Mutualism

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RoadMap Mutualism between two species can influence the whole group Commensalism is a relationship between two species that advantages just a single, with alternate animal varieties unaffected Chap.9 Mutualism

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9.1 Plant-Pollinator Mutualism Most regular kind of mutualism (Figure 9.1) 45% of all investigations of mutualism Coevolved frameworks Selective weights for plants to create suggest association with pollinators (Figure 9.2) More than 900 types of Ficus exist and basically all must be pollinated by its own particular types of agaonid wasp Yucca plants and yucca moths - very coevolved The dissemination of every species is controlled by the accessibility of alternate species Ex. Yucca blossom premature birth if an excessive number of eggs are laid Chap.9 Mutualism

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0.5 0.4 0.3 Proportion of mutualism articles 0.2 0.1 0 Grazing Nutritional Other Seed dispersal Ant-plant assurance Ant-bug security Mycorrhizal Pollination Fig. 9.1 Frequency of articles on various types of mutualism distributed in 675 papers. Chap.9 Mutualism

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Fig. 9.2 Blastophaga psenes, a modest fig wasp, which creep inside the captifig in California to lay her eggs. Chap.9 Mutualism

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Cheating in fertilization In the Bogs of Maine Grass-pink orchid creates no nectar, yet impersonates the nectar-delivering rose pogonia Some Bombus species cheat by gnawing through the base of the blooms, taking the nectar without entering the plant nor helping with fertilization Chap.9 Mutualism

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9.2 Seed Dispersal Seed dispersal frameworks represent very nearly 30% of all mutualisms In tropics a few organic products are scattered by winged creatures that are frugivorous Fruit gives adjusted eating regimen to fowls Birds scatter seeds Mechanisms for fascination Birds and warm blooded creatures - alluring hues, and unscented (Birds) Nocturnal bats - emit impactful smell Chap.9 Mutualism

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Seed dispersal instruments are not as required as plant-pollinator frameworks Performed by more generalist specialists Wide cluster of adjustments Ex. parrot bills to break and peel natural products A berry-eating fish from the Amazon. Ex. Figure 9.3 Chap.9 Mutualism

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A Variety of Mutualisms and assets Neotropical leaf-cutting ants and organism (Figure 9.4) Typical subterranean insect settlement: 9 million Typical biomass of state: Equivalent to a the biomass of a bovine Typically cuts what might as well be called a cow's day by day prerequisite of new vegetation Leaf-cutting ants collect 17% of the aggregate leaf creation in the backwoods Ants take slice vegetation underground to develop unique parasitic harvests (nature's ranchers?) Fungus develops particular structures called gongylidia, which fill in as nourishment for the ants Chap.9 Mutualism

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Fig. 9.4 Leaf-cutting ants Atta cephalotes , in South America, bite up leaves and develop organism plants underground. Chap.9 Mutualism

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Leaf-cutting ants and the parasitic organism, Escovopsis can plague the ants' organisms gardens, crushing the parasites inside A mutualisitic streptomyces Occurs on the assemblages of ants Produces antibodies that hold Escovopsis under control Chap.9 Mutualism

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Nitrogen Vital to plant and creature development Most species can not settle barometrical nitrogen Fixation is completed by soil microscopic organisms and archaebacteria Most live in the underlying foundations of plants Mutualistic association with plant Excess nitrogen is accessible to plant Ex. Rhizobia microscopic organisms in vegetables Figure 9.5 Chap.9 Mutualism

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Mutualism under brutal natural conditions Strong facultative mutualism Leguminous bush, Retama , and an understory plant, Marrubium vulgare Grow in a semiarid district of Spain Retama shades Marrubium , gives good microclimate Marrubium upgrades the accessibility of water for Retama Chap.9 Mutualism

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Retama Marrubium 1.0 30 20 Leaf mass (g) Leaf mass (g) 0.5 10 0.0 0 100 20 2 15 75 Leaf zone (cm/g) Leaf region (cm/g) 50 10 25 5 0 3 0.6 2 0.4 N content (g/plant) N content (g/plant) 0.2 1 Fig. 9.6 0 0.0 +M - M +R - R Environment Chap.9 Mutualism

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Mutualism and insurance from normal foes Common case: ants and aphids(Figure 9.7) Aphids feast upon plant sap and discharge honeydew Ants drink the honeydew and consequently secure the aphids Chap.9 Mutualism

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Mutualism and herbivory Ants shield plants from herbivores Common in the tropics 377 myrmecophytic plants for every hectare in a Brazilian Rain Forest (Fonseca and Ganade, 1996) 312 subterranean insect plant relationship at a solitary seaside site in Mexico (Rico-Gray, 1993) Chap.9 Mutualism

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Fig. 9.8 Thorns on Acacia collinsii in Paloverde National Park in Costa Rica. Illustration: Ants and the Central American acacia trees Acacia trees give nourishment and asylum to the ants inside substantial thistles Ants shield the acacia tree from different creepy crawlies and vertebrate herbivores Ants likewise trim foliage far from contending plants and murder neighboring plant shoots Figure 9.8 Chap.9 Mutualism

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Fig. 9.9 Soay sheep Example: Fungi and plants Fungi diminish vertebrate herbivory Soay Sheep of Hirta Island (in the St. Kilda Archipelago) Figure 9.9 Sheep overgraze local grasses Periodically, sheep populace crashes Chap.9 Mutualism

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Mutualism is the central offender The fundamental scavenge is the grass Festuca rubra F. rubra contains an endophyte, the growth Acremonium , inside its sharp edges The parasite produces poisonous alkaloids These alkaloids work as a hostile to herbivory resistance consequently, the organism gets sustenance from the plant Frequency of contamination related to touching weight. Overwhelming touching causes higher diseases Fungi are in most prominent focus in basal areas. Substantial brushing brings about sheep achieving lower cutting edges. Chap.9 Mutualism

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Obligate mutualism A mutualistic relationship, in which neither one of the participants could make due without the other Ex. Lichen: a relationship amongst green growth and parasites Algae gives the photosynthate Fungi gives a protected living space Ex. Numerous ruminants and harmonious microbes Bacteria separate plant tissue to give vitality to their hosts Ex. The foundations of most plants and parasites Mutualistic relationship between the organism and root tissue - mycorrhizae Fungi acquire starches from their host Fungi increment access to mineral sustenance and water for the plant Chap.9 Mutualism

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9.4 Modeling Mutualism Uses conditions like Lotka-Volterra rivalry conditions For facultative mutualism dN 1/dt = r 1 N 1 [K 1 - N 1 + a N 2 )/K 1 ] dN 2/dt = r 2 N 2 [K 2 - N 2 + b N 1 )/K 2 ] dN i/dt = change in populace size of species 1 or 2 r i = per capita development rate for species 1 or 2 N i = populace size of species 1 or 2 K i = Maximum populace thickness of species 1 or 2 a = Positive impact of species 2 on species 1 b = Positive impact of species 1 on species 2 Chap.9 Mutualism

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Facultative mutualism dN N dN a) b) c) 1 1=0 2=0 1 = 0 dt 2 N 2 N 2 dN 2=0 dt Population thickness of N 2 dN 1=0 dt X 2 X 2 X N X N X N 1 Population thickness of N 1 Fig. 9.10 Graphical models of facultative (a-c) and commit (d-f) mutualism. Chap.9 Mutualism

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For commit mutualism Different conditions are required Models of facultative mutualism are, all in all, more steady than models of commit mutualism Figure (9.10d-f) Chap.9 Mutualism

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Obligate mutualism N dN 1 dN d) e) f) 1 = 0 2 = 0 1 = 0 N dt 2 dt N 2 N 2 dN 2=0 1=0 dt Population thickness of N dN — 2=0 dt N 1 Population thickness of N 1 Chap.9 Mutualism

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9.5 Mutualisms and Community Process Mutualism can have solid aberrant impacts on the group Ex. mycorrhizal growths and herbivory stack Pinyon pines and mycorrhizae: Density of needle scale bug, Matsucoccus acalyptus : Mycorrhizae can enhance pine energy as well as increment plant interest in antiherbivory safeguards Density of needle scale creepy crawlies will diminish Chap.9 Mutualism

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Ex. Endophytes (organisms that live inside leaves) and vascular plant has - Defend have against herbivory Mycorrhizal growths and plant species assorted qualities (Figure 9.11) Chap.9 Mutualism

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d) a) 7 0.8 6 0.6 5 Hyphal length (m g soil) - 1 0.4 Simpson's differing qualities record 4 3 0.2 2 0 2 4 8 10 12 14 6 0 2 4 8 10 12 14 6 e) b) 20 130 120 - 1 15 110 - 2 Shoot biomass (g m ) Soil P (mg kg soil) 100 10 90 5 80 70 0 2 4 8 10 12 14 6 0 2 4 8 10 12 14 6 f) c) 2500 160 - 2 - 2 2000 140 1500 120 Plant P (mg m ) Fig. 9.11 Root biomass (g m ) - 2 1000 100 80 500 0 2 4 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 8 10 12 14 6 Number of mycorrhizal parasitic species Number of mycorrhizal contagious species Chap.9 Mutualism

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9.6 Commensalism Commensal relationship: one individuals benefits and the other is unaffected Ex. An orchid and a tropical tree: orchids pick up a place to live and the tree picks up nothing Ex. Cows egrets and steers: Cattle mix up bug prey for egrets (Figure 9.12) Chap.9 Mutualism

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10 Feedings for each moment 0 30 20 Steps for each prey 10 0 Fig. 9.12 No dairy animals Chap.9 Mutualism Cow

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Commensalism as phoresy: affiliation is inactive and more impermanent transport of one life form by another The vehicle of blossom occupying parasites from sprout to blossom in the nares of hummingbirds Common commensalisms: plant instruments of seed dispersal Ex. Seeds joined to creature hide Some mechanims can turn into a hostile relationship Pisonia (cabbage tree) deliver an extremely sticky organic product Chap.9 Mutualism