Part 8: The Echoes of an English Voice (293-336)

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South African English and Afrikans (McCrum 303/332) 34. 35 !English versus ... In June of 1976, the South African government announced that Afrikaans was to be ...

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Section 8: The Echoes of an English Voice (293-336) The Echoes of an English Voice 34

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The Story of English By Don L. F. Nilsen Based on The Story of English By Robert McCrum, Robert MacNeil and William Cran (Penguin, 2003) 34

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The Raj: The sun never sets on the British Empire. English East-end convicts (Cockney speakers) were sent to New South Wales, Australia. English supporters wound up in New Zealand. English subjects likewise colonized Rhodesia (Cape Colony) in Southern Africa, Singapore, Hong Kong, parts of China, parts of Canada, India, Pakistan, Burma, Afghanistan, Thailand, Tanzania, the Falkland Islands and America. (McCrum 293-294) 34

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English Raj (McCrum 274/297) 34

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"Cockney" alludes to a "rooster's egg," and is considered of little esteem. In the 16 th century, Cockney was the dialect of all Londoners who were not part of the Court. Amid the modern transformation, the desperate ranchers in Essex, Suffolk, Kent, and Middlesex moved to London's East End. This is the place Cockney created. (McCrum 295) 34

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Cockney English (London's West End) (McCrum 278/302) 34

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Cockney in Culture & Literature Cockney is the dialect of the young ladies killed by Jack the Ripper. Cockney is the dialect of Sam Weller in Charles Dickens' Pickwick Papers . Cockney is the dialect of George Bernard Shaw's Eliza Doolittle Cockney is the dialect of Sweeney Todd. Cockney is the dialect of Michael Cain in Alphie Cockney is the dialect of Charles Dickens' Oliver Twist. 34

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Cockney speakers say "year'oles" and "chimbley" for "ear gaps" and "stack." They say "bruvver" for "sibling." In "spread," "jug" and "spoiled" they have a glottal stop. They drop the last –g in "eatin'" and "drinkin.'" They regularly utilize the tag, "isn't it." They have a nosy –r in "gone," "off" and "hack" so they get to be "gorn," "orf" and "corf." "You" gets to be "yer"; "tomato" and "potato" get to be "tomater" and "potater" "Lord have mercy on us," and "God dazzle me" get to be "Gawdelpus" and "Gorblimey." (McCrum 300-301) 34

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Cockney Rhyming Slang In Cockney rhyming slang "line" and "table" get to be "bull and dairy animals" and "Cain and Abel." "Suit" ��  "shriek and woodwind"; "cap" ��  "one good turn deserves another"; "gloves" ��  "turtle-birds"; "boots" ��  "daisyroots"; "naked" ��  "in the discourteous"; bosom ��  "Bristol City"; spouse ��  "inconvenience and strife"; "liar" ��  "sacred monk"; "cash" ��  "honey bees and nectar"; and "talk" ��  "rabbit and pork" 34

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In Cockney Rhyming Slang, the word for "teeth" is "Edward Heath," since this was one of the conspicuous component's of the chief's grin. What's more, "John Selwyn" turned into the word for "Bummer" since his last name was Gummer. Since Cockney Rhyming Slang is an Argot, the speakers attempt to make the expressions secretive, accordingly the expressions above get diminished to: shriek, titfer, turtles, daisies, Bristols, inconvenience, sacred, honey bees, and rabbit. The word for "posterior" is "Khyber." This is a direct result of the British fighters who had been positioned in the "Khyber Pass." (McCrum 303-305) 34

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Foreign Influences on Cockney The Cockney word "buddy" for "companion" is the Romany word for "sibling." "Dukes" is the Romany word for hands, as in the expression, "Set up your Dukes." The Cockney words "schlemiel" (blockhead), "schmutter" (garments), "gelt" (cash), and "nosh" (sustenance) originate from Yiddish. Cockney "parlyvoo" (visit), "San pixie ann" (it doesn't make a difference), and "partner toot sweet" (pick up the pace) originate from French. What's more, Cockney "horse crap" (junk) originates from American English. (McCrum 306) 34

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Back Slang Another mystery dialect that created amid the 19 th Century was back slang. Rather than saying the numbers "one, four, five and six" they would say "eno, rouf, efiv and xis. In back slang, "fat" and "kid" get to be "taf" and "yob." (McCrum 303) 34

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Market Language When greengrocers exchange discount in foods grown from the ground, they are now and again conversing with a few clients in the meantime. The greengrocer may say, "Right, George, you can be a rouf there." and he realizes that he has purchased at four pounds, and the other individual, who may purchase a similar thing for five pounds, doesn't have the foggiest idea. 34

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The slang numbers that are utilized as a part of London's East End are intended to confound. Dairy animals' calf is "half," "nicker is "one," container is "two," cover is "three," rouf is four," jacks is "five," Tom Nicks is "six," neves is "seven," garden entryway is "eight," and cockerel and hen or cockle is "ten." One greengrocer comments, "There's no tenets. A few days ago this bloke said, 'Do they go to an Alan Whicker then?' Meaning "nicker," which is a pound." (McCrum 304-305) 34

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In My Fair Lady , Eliza Doolittle is Professor Pickering's Project. She doesn't maintain/h/sounds and she includes/t/to words like "orphant" and "sermont." She declares "push," "farthing" and "quill" as "frust," "farding" and "fever." (McCrum 295) 34

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Instead of "blooms" and "Go on" and "A B C" she says "flars," and "Garn" and "Ay-ee, Ba-yee, Sa-yee." She doesn't purport her/h/sound and needs to learn "In Hartford, Hereford and Hampshire, storms scarcely every happen." She professes "chain," "peculiar" and "get" as "chyne," "straynge," and "obtayn," and needs to take in "The rain in Spain falls predominantly on the plain." (McCrum 295) 34

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Cockney Friendship Cockney English has a wide range of terms to show the closeness of a relationship, extending from Duck Love Dear Cock (My old) pal Guvnor and Mate The general population that a Cockney speaker blends with socially are known as "the mates." (McCrum 307) 34

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Australian English (McCrum 286/311) 34

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Australian English Billabong: Water opening Billy: Coffee Boomerang: Throwing stick Coolibah: An Australian tree G'day Illywhacker (extortionist) 34

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More Australian English Jumbuck: Sheep Kangaroo, Dingo, Jooey, Koalla, Kookaburra, Wallabee, and Wombat: Australian creatures Outback Swagman: Hobo, tramp Tucker-Bag: Bag for holding "tucker" Walkabout: Mindless winding Waltzing Matilda: A melody 34

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Waltzing Matilda Once a dapper swagman stayed outdoors by a billabong. Under the shade of a coolibah tree, And he sang as he watched and held up till his billy bubbled, "Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?" Waltzing Matilda, Waltzing Matilda, "Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?" And he sang as he watched and held up till his billy bubbled, "Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?" 34

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Down came a jumbuck to drink at the billabong: Up bounced the swagman and got him with joy. Also, he sang as he pushed that jumbuck in his tucker-sack, "You'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me." Waltzing Matilda, Waltzing Matilda, "You'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me." And he sang as he pushed that jumbuck in his tucker-pack. "You'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me." (McCrum 314) 34

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Is Australian English like British or American English? Australians (like Paul Hogan, a.k.a. Crocodile Dundee) are free. Not at all like Cockney speakers, there is no glottal stop in Australian English, and they don't drop their/h/. (McCrum 319) Australians say both "scone" and "treat," both "nappy" and "diaper," both "lorry" and "truck." They ride in both "lifts" and "lifts." 34

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Australians get their water from "spigots" not "taps," and their autos keep running on "petrol" not "gas," and drive on "expressways," not "motorways. Americans obtained "kangaroo" from Australia, and the Australians acquired it back in the expression "kangaroo court." (McCrum 315, 327) 34

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Let Stalk Strine Afferbeck Lauder entitled his book, Let Stalk Strine . He demonstrates how "What amount is it?" ��  "Emma chisit?" "They should." ��  "Aorta." "Only a… " ��  "Numb Butter… " Aussies likewise adore similitudes like "as rare as shaking steed excrement" and "as bare as a bandicoot." And they may depict young delight as "encourage, a frostie, and a component" signifying "nourishment, lager and sex." (McCrum 326) 34

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Although Australia is the extent of Europe, Australians live in a "one-class society, joined in a blend of antagonistic vibe and sentimentality towards Mother England, United particularly in the detachment and meticulousness of Australian life." The rising affectation needs to do with Australian uncertainty. Aussies, who have a twang in their discourse, feel that the English utilize "Lah di dah talk." They see English states of mind as "snobbish." Boys who utilize "appropriate discourse" are frequently thought to be viewed as "sissies," or surprisingly more dreadful, "poofters." (McCrum 320, 323) 34

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Australian Social & Gender Dialects Even however there are no local lingos in Australia, there are three social vernaculars: Broad Australian General Australian Cultivated Australian. "Ladies and young ladies tend towards General or Cultivated Australian, and… men and young men, communicating mateship and machismo… , tend towards General or Broad Australian." (McCrum 322) 34

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What is a Pommy? An Aussie will call an Englishman a "Pommy." This is another way to say "pomegranate" in light of the fact that Englishmen are frequently reddish cheeked. In Cockney Rhyming Slang an Englishman is called "Jimmy." This i

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