Part 8

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Part 8 African Civilizations and the Spread of Islam

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Present Day Africa

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Kingdoms in Pre-Colonial Africa

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2 nd biggest & 2 nd most crowded landmass 6% of aggregate surface; 20.4% of aggregate land surface 53 nations; 922 million individuals (starting 2005) Central eastern Africa broadly viewed as source of human species Area: right around 12 million square miles (US is around 3.3 million square miles) Africa Info… .

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Political structures fluctuate Different religions Universal states and widespread religions don't describe African history A. Stateless Societies Organized around family relationship Secret social orders B. Normal Elements in African Societies Unity in dialect, thought, and religion Bantu movement one dialect base (particular dialects could contrast) Animism Power of common strengths Cosmology ancestry essential in connection with god I. African Societies: Diversity and Similarities

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C. The Arrival of Islam in North Africa Part of Mediterranean Arrival of Islam Spain, by 711 Berber Almoravids western Sahara Launched on jihad south against African kingdoms of savanna help transformation Almohads (1130) Another reformist gathering succeed Berbers, twelfth century D. The Christian Kingdoms: Nubia and Ethiopia Copts Egyptian Christians welcome Muslims spread to Nubia (Kush) Ethiopia beneficiaries to Axum King Lalibela I. African Societies: Diversity and Similarities

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Caravans crosswise over Sahara Sahel (fields) exchange point A. Sudanic States Rulers sacrosanct Islam from 900s backings state B. The Empire of Mali and Sundiata, the "Lion Prince" Malinke people groups from Ghana Agriculture, gold exchange Sundiata (d.1260) mansa (ruler) extended state Mansa Kankan Musa journey to Mecca brings back Ishak al-Sahili designer from Muslim Spain beaten earth engineering II. Kingdoms of the Grasslands Empires of the Western Sudan

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Niger Valley

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Mali Empire

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C. City Dwellers and Villagers Jenne, Timbuktu flourish with extension of Mali, Songhay Mandinka juula (dealers) Merchants Farmers the lion's share II. Kingdoms of the Grasslands Empires of the Western Sudan

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D. The Songhay Kingdom Middle Niger valley Independent by 700 Muslim by 1010 Capital at Gao Sunni Ali (1464-1492) extended domain successors: askia Defeated by Morocco, 1591 Hausa states, northern Nigeria Kano gets to be Muslim focus E. Political and Social Life in the Sudanic States Fusion of Muslim, indigenous conventions II. Kingdoms of the Grasslands

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Songhay Empire

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Trading ports Muslim impact solid Rest of populace stays conventional A. The Coastal Trading Ports Mogadishu, Mombasa, Malindi, Kilwa, Pate, Zanzibar Madagascar southeast Asian settlers bring bananas, coconuts Blended culture Bantu, Islamic Swahili spreads along drift exchange with Asia B. The Mixture of Cultures on the Swahili Coast Islam binds together alongside Swahili III. The Swahili Coast of East Africa The Swahili Coast

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Swahili Coast Indian Ocean Trade Routes

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A. Craftsmen and Kings: Yoruba and Benin Nok culture, 500 b.c.e. what's more, 200 c.e. Nigerian woods farming, press devices Hiatus, 200-1000 c.e. Yoruba Speaking Peoples urbanized agriculturalists little city-states divine rulers Ile-Ife heavenly prominent picture heads IV. People groups of the Forest and Plains

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B. Focal African Kingdoms Bantu near Cape Horn by 1200 frame states Katanga Luba people groups divine sovereignty inherited organization IV. People groups of the Forest and Plains

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Zambezi River in southern Africa

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Central Rain Forest Lake Victoria

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Physical Map: Africa

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C. The Kingdoms of the Kongo and Mwene Mutapa Kongo along lower Congo by late fifteenth century Agricultural purported sexual orientation division of work ladies cultivate, run family men clear woodland, chase, exchange Mbanza Kongo Capital Shona dialect gather Zimbabwe (stone courts) by ninth century Great Zimbabwe Mwene Mutapa control of gold sources IV. People groups of the Forest and Plains

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Great Zimbabwe