Part 7 Bone Tissue

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Bone as a Tissue. Element tissue that ceaselessly redesigns itselfBones and bone tissuebone or bony tissue is a connective tissue with a network solidified by minerals (calcium phosphate)bones make up the skeletal framework individual bones are comprised of bone tissue, marrow, ligament

Presentation Transcript

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´╗┐Section 7 Bone Tissue Tissues and organs of the skeletal framework Histology of rigid tissue Bone advancement Physiology of bony tissue Bone issue

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Bone as a Tissue Dynamic tissue that constantly rebuilds itself Bones and bone tissue bone or rigid tissue is a connective tissue with a network solidified by minerals (calcium phosphate) bones make up the skeletal framework singular bones are comprised of bone tissue, marrow, ligament & periosteum Functions of the skeletal framework bolster, assurance, development, blood arrangement, mineral supply, pH adjust & detoxification

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Shapes of Bones

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Structure of a Flat Bone External and inside surfaces of level bone are made out of reduced bone Middle layer is springy bone (diploe). No marrow cavity Blow to the skull may crack external layer and pulverize diploe, however not hurt inward smaller bone

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Structure of a Long Bone Periosteum & articular ligament Compact & elastic bone Endosteum Yellow marrow

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General Features of Bones Shaft (diaphysis) is barrel of minimized bone containing marrow cavity (medullary cavity) & fixed with endosteum (layer of osteopenic cells and reticular connective tissue) Enlarged finishes (epiphyses) are springy bone secured with a layer of conservative bone amplified to reinforce joint & accommodate connection of ligaments and tendons Joint surface secured with articular ligament (grease) Remainder of bone secured with periosteum external sinewy layer of collagen strands ceaseless with ligaments or perforating(Sharpey's) filaments that enter into bone lattice internal osteogenic layer critical for development & recuperating Epiphyseal plate or line relies on upon age

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Cells of Osseous Tissue (1) Osteogenic cells dwell in endosteum, periosteum or focal trenches emerge from embryonic fibroblasts and turn out to be hotspot for new osteoblasts increase constantly & separate into amitotic osteoblasts because of stress or breaks Osteoblasts frame and help mineralize natural matter of grid Osteocytes are osteoblasts that have turned out to be caught in the framework they shaped cells in lacunae associated by hole intersections inside canaliculi flag osteoclasts & osteoblasts about mechanical anxieties

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Cells of Osseous Tissue (2) Osteoclasts create in bone marrow by the combination of 3-50 of a similar foundational microorganisms that offer ascent to monocytes found in blood Reside in pits called resorption sounds that they have eaten into the surface of the bone

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Matrix of Osseous Tissue Dry weight is 1/3 natural & 2/3 inorganic matter Organic matter collagen, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans & glycoproteins Inorganic matter 85% hydroxyapatite (solidified calcium phosphate salt) 10% calcium carbonate different minerals (fluoride, sulfate, potassium, magnesium) Combination accommodates quality & flexibility minerals oppose pressure; collagen opposes strain fiberglass = glass filaments installed in a polymer bone adjusts to strain and pressure by changing extents of minerals and collagen filaments

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Compact Bone Osteon (haversian framework) = essential basic unit chambers of tissue framed from layers (lamellae) of grid masterminded around focal waterway holding a vein collagen filaments interchange amongst right-and left-gave helices from lamella to lamella osteocytes associated with each other and their blood supply by modest cell forms in canaliculi Perforating channels or Volkmann waterways vascular waterways oppositely joining focal waterways Circumferential or external lamellae

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Histology of Compact Bone

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Blood Vessels of Compact Bone

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Spongy Bone Spongelike appearance shaped by poles and plates of bone called trabeculae spaces loaded with red bone marrow Trabeculae have few osteons or focal channels no osteocyte is a long way from blood of bone marrow Provides quality with little weight trabeculae create along bone's lines of stress

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Spongy Bone Structure and Stress

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Bone Marrow Soft tissue that involves the medullary depression of a long bone or the spaces in the midst of the trabeculae of light bone Red marrow looks like thick blood work of reticular strands and youthful cells hemopoietic means produces platelets found in vertebrae, ribs, sternum, pelvic support and proximal heads of femur and humerus in grown-ups Yellow marrow greasy marrow of long bones in grown-ups Gelatinous marrow of maturity yellow marrow supplanted with ruddy jam

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Intramembranous Ossification Produces level bones of skull & clavicle Steps of the procedure mesenchyme consolidates into a sheet of delicate tissue changes into a system of delicate trabeculae osteoblasts accumulate on the trabeculae to shape osteoid tissue (uncalcified bone) calcium phosphate is stored in the network changing the osteoblasts into osteocytes osteoclasts redesign the middle to contain marrow spaces & osteoblasts rebuild the surface to frame minimal bone mesenchyme at the surface offers ascend to periosteum

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Intramembranous Ossification

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Endochondral Ossification Primary hardening focus frames in ligament demonstrate chondrocytes close to the middle swell to frame essential solidification focus lattice is lessened & display gets to be distinctly powerless by then cells of the perichondrium deliver a hard neckline cuts off dissemination of supplements and hurries their demise Primary marrow space framed by periosteal bud osteogenic cells attack & change into osteoblasts osteoid tissue saved and calcified into trabeculae at same time osteoclasts work to extend the essential marrow hole

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Primary Ossification Center & Marrow Space Both frame in focal point of ligament model - same process starts again in this manner at closures of ligament model.

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The Metaphysis Transitional zone amongst head and shaft of a growing long bone Zone of save ligament is layer of resting ligament Zone of cell expansion is layer chondrocytes increase framing segments of level lacunae Zone of cell hypertrophy indicates hypertrophy Zone of calcification shows mineralization between sections of lacunae Zone of bone statement - chondrocytes bite the dust and each channel is loaded with osteoblasts and veins to shape a haversian trench & osteon

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The Metaphysis

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Secondary Ossification Center Begin to frame in the epiphyses close time of birth Same stages happen as in essential hardening focus result is focal point of epiphyseal ligament being changed into supple bone Hyaline ligament stays on joint surface as articular ligament and at intersection of diaphysis & epiphysis (epiphyseal plate) each side of epiphyseal plate has a metaphysis

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Metaphysis & Secondary Ossification Center Metaphysis is cartilagenous material that remaining parts as development plate between medullary depression & auxiliary solidification focuses in the epiphyses.

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The Fetal Skeleton at 12 Weeks

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Epiphyseal Plates

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Bone Growth and Remodeling Grow and redesign themselves all through life developing mind or beginning to walk competitors or history of difficult work have more noteworthy thickness & mass of bone Cartilage develops by both appositional & interstitial development Bones increment long by interstitial development of epiphyseal plate Bones increment in width by appositional development osteoblasts set down grid in layers parallel to the external surface & osteoclasts break up bone on inward surface on the off chance that one procedure outpaces the other, bone distortions happen (osteitis deformans)

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Achondroplastic Dwarfism Short stature however typical measured head and trunk long bones of the appendages quit developing in adolescence yet different bones unaffected Result of unconstrained transformation when DNA is reproduced mutant allele is overwhelming Pituitary diminutive person has absence of development hormone short stature with ordinary extents

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Mineral Deposition Mineralization is crystallization handle in which particles (calcium, phosphate & others) are expelled from blood plasma & stored in bone tissue Steps of the mineralization procedure osteoblasts deliver collagen strands that winding along the length of the osteon in rotating headings filaments get to be distinctly encrusted with minerals solidifying framework particle fixation must achieve the dissolvability item for precious stone arrangement to happen & then constructive input shapes more Ectopic hardening is anomalous calcification may happen in lungs, cerebrum, eyes, muscles, ligaments or corridors (arteriosclerosis)

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Mineral Resorption Process of dissolving bone & discharging minerals into the blood performed by osteoclasts "unsettled fringe" hydrogen pumps in the phone film emit hydrogen particles into the space between the osteoclast & the bone chloride particles take after by electrical fascination hydrochloric corrosive with a pH of 4 disintegrates bone minerals a catalyst (corrosive phosphatase) processes the collagen Dental props reposition teeth, making more prominent weight on the bone on one side of the tooth and less on the opposite side expanded weight animates osteoclasts; diminished weight empowers osteoblasts to rebuild jaw bone

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Functions of Calcium & Phosphate is a segment of DNA, RNA, ATP, phospholipids, & corrosive base cushions Calcium is required for correspondence between neurons, muscle withdrawal, blood thickening & exocytosis Calcium plasma focus is 9.2 to 10.4 mg/dL - 45% is as Ca+2, rest is bound to plasma proteins & is not physiologically dynamic Phosphate plasma fixation is 3.5 to 4.0 mg/dL & happens in 2 shapes: HPO 4 - 2 & H 2 PO 4 -

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Ion Imbalances Changes in phosphate fixation have little impact Changes in calcium can be not kidding hypocalcemia is lack of blood calcium causes unreasonable sensitivity of sensory system prompting to muscle fits, tremors or tetany laryngospasm may bring about suffoca