Part 7: Attitudes

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Starting contemplations . Demeanors and articulation of identityIdentity functionUtilitarian functionInterdiscplinary analysisBehaviorismOther fields. Exemplary open deliberation: state of mind nonpartisanship (?). Nonpartisanship versus Indecision versus

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Section 7: Attitudes

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Initial musings Attitudes and articulation of personality Identity work Utilitarian capacity Interdiscplinary examination Behaviorism Other fields

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Classic open deliberation: demeanor lack of bias (?) Neutrality versus Inner conflict versus "No data" Measurement? Societal esteem Possible?

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Why Neutrality is Difficult #1 Automaticity of dispositions

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#2: insignificant introduction impact Zajonc (1968) The "Turkish word" contemplate e.g., saricik, kadirga, ikitaf 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, or 25 exposures articulate so anyone might hear each time Guess great versus terrible importance

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Moreland and Zajonc (1973) Subliminal introduction (4 ms) Test stage: "old" versus what's more, "new" images Recognition undertaking: chance level Liking: old images favored

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Additional data about negligible introduction impact The impacts of rehashed presentation rely on upon beginning examination of the jolt Initially enjoyed, or impartial: expanded preferring, yet: Initially loathed: expanded disdaining

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Classic Problems in Attitude Measurement Response choices not fitting Acquiescence (yea-saying) predispositions Framing

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Examples Abortion Pro-life versus star decision; "hatchling" versus "unborn youngster", and so on… Cloning "What is your state of mind toward research on creature cloning?" "If inquire about on creature cloning could be utilized to propel our capacity to avoid growth, would you be supportive of such research?"

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4. Social attractive quality impacts (Goffman, 1959). Social attractive quality "genuine" state of mind Fundamental issue: "how much" of reaction is because of one variable or other.

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"Great" (more established) methodologies Vary setting in which reactions are made The "Sham Pipeline" (Jones & Sigall, 1971) Participants "rehearse" on machine, to persuade that can recognize truth from lying Then made a request to express legitimate dispositions toward blend of new mentalities, some unremarkable, some socially touchy

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Older methodologies, proceeded with Disguise/cover what's being asked " Symbolic" states of mind Overtly communicated demeanor A 2 Underlying disposition A 1 (socially unsuitable )

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cases of "typical" dispositions (Kinder, 1986) "____ understudies get an excessive amount of money related help from the college" (Boneicki, 1998) "Victimization Blacks is a relic of past times" (McConahay, 1986) "Downtown St. Louis has a lot of wrongdoing" Potential favorable circumstances versus weaknesses? Tradeoff: endeavors to camouflage address undermine develop legitimacy

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Newer approach: Implicit Attitudes Attitude question (prime)  target Presentation of prime expected to encourage or restrain reaction to the objective Semantic preparing "chocolate" "sustenance" (semantic preparing) Evaluative preparing "chocolate"  "great" (direct) "chocolate"  "blossom" ( circuitous) "chocolate"  "nauseating"

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Types of certain preparing undertakings Lexical choice assignments : choose whether target is a word or not "Word or non-word?" prime target choice reaction chocolate "great" RT measured xxxxxxxx "great" reaction

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Lexical choice errands, proceeded with Construct help files RT (xxxxx  great) – RT (chocolate good) (500 milliseconds) - (200 milliseconds) = 300 ms 300 ms speaks to understood state of mind record

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Evaluative choice errands Very like lexical choice, yet judgmental choice diverse Is it a decent or a terrible word? prime target choice alluring reaction chocolate attractive reaction xxxxxx

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some short exhibits

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Summary If "An" and "B" are related in memory, then showing An ought to make B more available Consequences of availability: quicker to choose if B is a word (lexical choice) positive or negative (evaluative choice)

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Why certain states of mind conceivably intriguing Potential separation Conscious versus oblivious Implicit dispositions less "defiled" without anyone else presentational predisposition (?) Implicit demeanors "purer" measures of genuine states of mind (???)

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Strong contention: isolate frameworks see Implicit undertakings Automatic (oblivious) framework Controlled (cognizant) framework Explicit assignments

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The pundits talk "simply one more mentality measure" prescient legitimacy? see Lambert, Payne, Shaffer, & Ramsey (2005) suspicions might be erroneous solid connections in some cases discovered controllability of responses to verifiable errands? "No such thing as a procedure immaculate measure" Larry Jacoby No errand 100% programmed No assignment 100% controlled

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More practical view? Certain undertakings Automatic framework Explicit assignments Controlled framework

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Subliminal Advertising?

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Historical Background The James Vicary episode (late 1950s) Popcorn deals increment by half, he says. Media response: Minds have been "broken and entered" (The New Yorker, 9/21/57) "The most disturbing and over the top revelation" since the creation of the automatic weapon (The Nation, 10/5/57) FCC bans subliminal promoting

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People's present perspectives toward subliminal versus "normal" promoting: Subliminal advertisements dreaded more, accepted to be more viable (Wilson et al. 1998) Subliminal self improvement tapes $50 million starting at 1990

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Evidence? Vicary's cases: created! No proof that subliminal publicizing works, in actuality, settings Note: Regular promoting EXTREMELY effective, yet individuals trust that they are resistant to it (Wilson & Brekke, 1994)

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Subliminal impact in research facility settings—developing confirmation

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So why no confirmation (yet) that subliminal publicizing works outside of the lab? " Noisy" settings? Fleeting separation? Settled demeanors difficult to change? Possibly does exist, only harder to gauge

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Could subliminal preparing be utilized to upgrade self-regard? "I like myself, yet I don't know why: Enhancing certain self regard by subliminal evaluative molding" (Dijksterhuis, 2004) Modified lexical choice assignment "I" exhibited for 17 milliseconds, trailed by… half trials: positive descriptors (e.g. Warm, sweet, pleasant, earnest, fair, lovely, lively, keen, solid, insightful, sound, amusing, decent) half trials: non words Control members: positive descriptive words supplanted with impartial words (e.g. table) Results demonstrate improved self-regard, resistance to disappointment criticism Replicates crosswise over six investigations

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Bush says "RATS" promotion not implied as subliminal message Gore calls advertisement 'disillusioning advancement' September 12, 2000 Web posted at: 9:04 p.m. EDT (0104 GMT) ORLANDO, Florida (CNN) - Republican presidential chosen one George W. Shrubbery said Tuesday he was "convinced" an advertisement put by the Republican National Committee that flashes the word "RATS" over a Gore professionally prescribed medication proposition was not planned to send a subliminal message. "We don't have to play charming governmental issues. Will win this race based upon issues," Bush told columnists in Orlando. Law based presidential chosen one Al Gore's battle reached news associations around a RNC promotion in which the word "RATS" shows up quickly on screen in a recognize that scrutinizes Gore's physician recommended sedate arrangement. A representative for the Texas senator on Tuesday ignored recommendations of subliminal promoting as "bizarre and weird," while the RNC had no quick remark.