Part 6 Probability and Simulation

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Reenactment. The impersonation of chance conduct taking into account a model that precisely mirrors the test under thought, is known as a reproduction. Ventures for Conducting a Simulation. State the issue or depict the experimentState the assumptionsAssign digits to speak to outcomesSimulate numerous repetitionsState your decisions.

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Section 6 Probability and Simulation 6.1 Simulation

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Simulation The impersonation of chance conduct in view of a model that precisely mirrors the test under thought, is known as a reproduction

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Steps for Conducting a Simulation State the issue or portray the investigation State the presumptions Assign digits to speak to results Simulate numerous redundancies State your decisions

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Step 1: State the issue or depict the analysis Toss a coin 10 times. What is the probability of a keep running of no less than 3 back to back heads or 3 successive tails?

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Step 2: State the Assumptions There are Two A head or tail is similarly liable to happen on each hurl Tosses are free of each other (ie: what occurs on one hurl won't impact the following hurl).

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Step 3 Assign Digits to speak to results Since every result is similarly as likely as the other, and there you are similarly prone to get a considerably number as an odd number in an irregular number table or utilizing an arbitrary number generator, dole out heads chances and tails levels.

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Step 4 Simulate numerous redundancies Looking at 10 back to back digits in Table B (or creating 10 irregular numbers) reproduces one reiteration. Perused many gatherings of 10 digits from the table to recreate numerous redundancies. Monitor regardless of whether the occasion we need ( a keep running of 3 heads or 3 tails) happens on every redundancy. Case 6.3 on page 394

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Step 5 State your decisions. We gauge the likelihood of a keep running by the extent Starting with line 101 of Table B and doing 25 redundancies; 23 of them had a keep running of at least 3 heads or tails. Along these lines appraise likelihood = If we composed a PC reenactment program and ran a huge number of redundancies you would find that the genuine likelihood is around .826

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Various Simulation Scenarios Example 6.4 – page 395 - Choose one individual at irregular from a gathering of 70% utilized. Recreate utilizing arbitrary number table.

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Frozen Yogurt Sales Example 6.5 – page 396 – Using irregular number table recreate the flavor decision of 10 clients entering shop given notable offers of 38% chocolate, 42% vanilla, 20% strawberry.

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A Girl or Four Example 6.6 – Page 396 – Use Random number table to mimic a couple have kids until 1 is a young lady or have four youngsters. Perform 14 Simulation

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Simulation with Calculator Activity 6B – page 399 – Simulate the irregular terminating of 10 Salespeople where 24% of the business compel are age 55 or above. (20 redundancies)

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Homework Read 6.1, 6.2 Complete Problems 1-4, 8, 9, 12

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Chapter 6 Probability and Simulation 6.2 Probability Models

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Key Term Probability is the branch of arithmetic that depicts the example of chance results (ie: move of dice, flip of coin, sexual orientation of child, turn of roulette wheel)

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Key Concept "Arbitrary" in measurements is not an equivalent word of "indiscriminate" but rather a portrayal of a sort of request that develops just over the long haul

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In the long run, the extent of heads methodologies .5, the likelihood of a head

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Researchers with Time on their Hands French Naturalist Count Buffon (1707 – 1788) flipped a coin 4040 time. Comes about: 2048 head or an extent of .5069. English Statistictian Karl Person 24,000 circumstances. Comes about 12, 012, an extent of .5005. Austrailian mathematician and WWII POW John Kerrich flipped a coin 10,000 circumstances. Comes about 5067 heads, extent of heads .5067

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Key Term/Concept We call a wonder irregular if singular results are indeterminate yet there is in any case a standard dissemination of results in a substantial number of reiterations

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Key Term/Concept The likelihood of any result of an arbitrary marvel is the extent of times the result would happen in a long arrangement of redundancy.

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Key Term/Concept As you investigate arbitrariness, recall that You should have a long arrangement of autonomous trials. (The result of one trial must not impact the result of whatever other trial) We can gauge a genuine likelihood just by watching numerous trials. PC Simulations are exceptionally valuable since we require long keeps running of information.

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Key Term/Concept The specimen space S of an arbitrary wonder is the arrangement of every single conceivable result. Case: The specimen space for a flip of a coin. S = {heads, tails}

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The 36 Possible Outcomes in moving two dice.

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A Tree Diagram can help you see all the conceivable results in a Sample Space of Flipping a coing and moving one pass on.

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Key Concept Multiplication Principle - If you can do one assignment in n 1 number of ways and a moment errand in n 2 number of ways, then both undertakings should be possible in n 1 x n 2 number of ways. ie: flipping a coin and rolling a bite the dust, 2 x 6 = 12 diverse conceivable results

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Key Term/Concept With Replacement – Draw a ball out of pack. Watch the ball. At that point return ball to sack. Without Replacement – Draw a ball out of pack. Watch the ball. The ball is not came back to pack.

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Key Term/Concept With Replacement – Three Digit number 10 x 10 x 10 = 1000 ie: lottery select 1 ball from each of 3 unique compartments of 10 balls Without Replacement – Three Digit number 10 x 9 x 8 = 720 ie: lottery select 3 balls from one holder of 10 balls.

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Key Concept/Term An occasion is a result or an arrangement of results of an irregular marvel. An occasion is a subset of the example space. Case: a coin is hurled 4 times. At that point "precisely 2 heads" is an occasion. S = {HHHH, HHHT,… … ..,TTTH, TTTT} A = {HHTT, HTHT, HTTH, THHT, THTH, TTHH}

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Key Definitions Sometimes we utilize set documentation to portray occasions. Union: A U B meaning An or B Intersect: A ∩ B meaning An and B Empty Event: Ø meaning the occasion has no results in it. On the off chance that two occasions are disjoint (totally unrelated), we can compose A ∩ B = Ø

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Venn outline indicating disjoint Events An and B

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Venn chart demonstrating the supplement A c of an occasion A

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Complement Example Example 6.13 on page 419

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Probabilities in a Finite Sample Space Assign a Probability to every individual result. The probabilities must be numbers in the vicinity of 0 and 1 and must have an aggregate 1. The likelihood of any occasion is the entirety of the results making up the occasion Example 6.14 page 420

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Assigning Probabilities: similarly likely results If an arbitrary wonder has k conceivable results, all similarly likely, then every individual result has likelihood 1/k. The likelihood of any occasion An is P(A) = include of results A include of results S Example: Dice, irregular digits… and so on

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The Multiplication Rule for Independent Events Rule 3. Two occasions An and B are free if realizing that one happens does not change the likelihood that alternate happens. On the off chance that An and B are autonomous. P(A and B) = P(A)P(B) Examples: 6.17 page 426

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Homework Read Section 6.3 Exercises 22, 24, 28, 29, 32-33, 36, 38, 44

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Probability And Simulation: The Study of Randomness 6.3 General Probability Rules

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Rules of Probability Recap Rule 1. 0 < P(A) < 1 for any occasion A Rule 2. P(S) = 1 Rule 3. Expansion lead: If An and B are disjoint events, then P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) Rule 4. Supplement administer: For any occasion A, P(A c ) = 1 – P(A) Rule 5. Duplication manage: If An and B are independent occasions, then P(A and B) = P(A)P(B)

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Key Term The union of any accumulation of occasions is the occasion that no less than one of the gathering happens.

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The expansion manage for disjoint occasions: P(A or B or C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) when A, B, and C are disjoint (no two occasions have results in like manner)

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General Rule for Unions of Two Events, P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B)

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Example 6.23, page 438

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Conditional Probability Example 6.25, page 442, 443

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General Multiplication Rule The joint likelihood that both of two occasions An and B happen together can be found by P(A and B) = P(A)P(B | A) P(A ∩ B) = P(A)P(B | An) Example: 6.26, page 444

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Definition of Conditional Probability When P(A) > 0, the contingent likelihood of B given An is P(B | A) = P(A and B) P(A) Example 6.28, page 445

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Key Concept: Extended Multiplication Rule The convergence of any gathering of occasions is the even that the majority of the occasions happen. Case: P(A and B and C) = P(A)P(B | A)P(C | An and B)

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Example 6.29, page 448: Extended Multiplication Rule

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Tree Diagrams Revisted Example 6.30, Page 448-9, Online Chatrooms

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Bayes' Rule Example 6.31, page 450, Chat Room Participants

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Independence Again Two occasions An and B that both have positive likelihood are free if P(B | A ) = P(B)

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Homework Exercises #71-78, 82, 86-88