Part 6: Black on White 209-250

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Part 6: Black on White (209-250) Black On White 33

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The Story of English By Don L. F. Nilsen Based on The Story of English By Robert McCrum, Robert MacNeil and William Cran (Penguin, 2003) 33

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West African Slave Trade (McCrum 198/214) 33

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The Slave Triangle England: Bristol & Liverpool = shoddy cotton merchandise, knickknacks, and Bibles Africa: Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Ghana, Ivory Coast Slaves communicating in Hausa, Wolof, Bulu, Bamoun, Temne, Asante, Twi, and so forth.) = Slaves America: Charleston, SC & the Caribbean = tobacco, sugar, rum & molasses (McCrum 210) 33

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English Words from Africa 33

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Maritime Pidgin English (McCrum 202/218) 33

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Pidgins & Creoles Pidgin is an improvement of the word business . Creole originates from Portuguese crioulo signifying "house slave" Other pidgin words in dark English incorporate pickaninny from Portuguese pequi ñ o , and canny from French savez-vous signifying "Do you know… " In AAVE "He workin'" implies that he is occupied right now, however "He be workin'" implies that he has a solid employment. Pidgin speakers additionally utilize "dey" and "de" for "they" and "the." (McCrum 212-216) 33

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Tense and Aspect in AAVE "Him go" signifies "He goes." "Him done go" signifies "He went." "Him binna go" keeps an eye on "He was going." (McCrum 219) 33

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Language about the Slave Trade Blacks Dozens Negroes Slave driver Slave work To offer somebody down the waterway (take note of that in Huckleberry Finn , Jim fled to abstain from being sold down the stream, however wound up going down the waterway all alone, with Huck). (McCrum 228) 33

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Famous Pidgin Speakers Tonto, the Lone Ranger's sidekick talked pidgin. Tarzen talked pidgin. Friday in Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe talked pidgin. Uncle Tom in Harriett Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin talked pidgin. Uncle Remus in Joel Chandler Harris' Uncle Remus Tales spoke pidgin. (McCrum 213 & 229) 33

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Brer Rabbit and Brer Fox "One day atter Brer Rabbit trick 'im wid dat calamus root, Brer Fox went ter wuk en got 'im some tar, en blend it wid some turpentine, en repair a contrapshun wat he call a Tar-Baby, en tuck dish yer Tar-Baby en he drunkard 'er in de enormous street, en lair he lay off in de brambles hide ter see wat de news wuz gwinter be." (McCrum 229) 33

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Joel Chandler Harris Joel Chandler Harris was not dark. Stamp Twain in certainty portrays Joel Chandler Harris as "white," as well as "undersized, red-haired and fairly freckled." This irritates numerous contemporary blacks. Be that as it may, he had a decent ear for dialect, as he proceeded (or abused) the dark narrating convention. (McCrum 229) 33

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Porgy and Bess In 1915, Thomas Heyward and Ira Gershwin composed the musical drama, Porgy and Bess . One of the Gershwin pieces in this musical show was "Song in Blue." In Porgy and Bess, Heyward and Gershwin attempted to catch the way of life and dialect of the Gullah-speaking Blacks. For instance, the laid-back Black blues rhythms can be heard in "Late spring." (McCrum 233) 33

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Summertime "Late spring … a' the livin' is simple. Fish are jumpin' … a' the cotton is high. O yo' Daddy's rich … a' yo' Ma is great lookin' So quiet little infant … don't yo' cry." (McCrum 233) 33

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The Spread of AAVE, Part 1 J. L. Dillard says that Southern Whites dislike the charge that AAVE impacted white Southern English. Dillard notes, be that as it may, that the Southern Dialect concurs superbly with the Confederate States—the ones that honed bondage. (McCrum 230-231) 33

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The Spead of AAVE, Part 2 Black English turned into the dialect of diversion: Sports Minstrel Shows Vaudeville Music Halls The Stage Night Clubs Radios, and even The Movies (McCrum 229, 238) 33

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Black Music 33

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New Orleans from 1870s on Double Meanings Covert Sexuality Black Liberation African Rhythms Jazz, Scat, and Syncopated Rhythms An artist who didn't care to ad lib was considered "up tight" Jazz was "hot" and it was additionally "cool." (McCrum 236) 33

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Black Sexual Allusions Cookie Cake Pie Angel Food Cake Jelly move (from Mandingo "jeli" which alludes to "a minstrel who picks up fame with ladies through aptitude with words and music" (McCrum 237) 33

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Black Words and Street Talk 33

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Coded Messages in Negro Spirituals I ain't never been to heaben however Ah been told, Comin' fuh to convey me home, Dat de boulevards in heaben am cleared wif gold, Comin' fuh to convey me home. Swing low, sweet Chariot, Comin' fuh to convey me home. Swing low, sweet Chariot, Comin' fuh to convey me home. (McCrum 235) 33

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In such Spirituals… "Take away to Jesus" was a welcome to a social occasion of slaves. "Judgment Day" was the day of the slave uprising. "Home, Canaan" was the Promised Land "Paradise" implied Africa, and "A-gwine to Glory" alluded to the boarding of a repatriation deliver destined for Africa. (McCrum 235) 33

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Inverted Messages As with the American Indians known as the "Contraries," numerous AAVE words were antonyms of themselves. In this way "terrible" signified "wonderful," And "awful" (proclaimed baa-advertisement ) signified "incredible," And both "fat" and "signify" signified "excellent." (McCrum 237) 33

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Before and After the Age of Six Up to the period of around 6, Black & White kids played together and adapted together. There were more Black kids than White kids. The majority of the nursing was finished by Black wet medical attendants so that Southern Belles could be Southern Belles. In any case, at six years old, White young men (however not White young ladies) were sent to Northern life experience schools so as not to be affected by Black discourse. (McCrum 231-232) 33

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English, Spanish & French in the Caribbean & Central America (McCrum 206/223) 33

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After the Civil War "Social equality" turned into an issue. In 1867 there were more Southern Blacks enrolled to vote than Whites. "Jim Crow" laws were set up to condense the privileges of blacks. These laws prompted to "isolation" and a "different yet equivalent" training. Blacks who didn't trust in these laws were viewed as "vain." (McCrum 233-234) 33

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Civil Rights in 1963 People began discussing "social equality." "dark" supplanted the words "negro," "nigger," and "shaded." "Dark history," "dark studies," "dark theater," and "dark power" got to be issues. "Sit-ins," "kindred spirits," "soul," "kickback" "transporting" "take the rap," "the hood"and "quick and dirty" got to be imperative English words. 33

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The best talker of a group was known as "the sovereign" and this gave us the name for the sit com, "The Fresh Prince of Belle Aire." "Loco crisp" means great. "Lodging" is your home. "Maxing (out)" signifies "unwinding." "Chill" is a brush off. "Gnawing" is duplicating, and "jonesing something" intends to need it truly gravely (from the expression "staying aware of the Jones"). (McCrum 248) 33

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Black Diaspora (McCrum 222/239) 33

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Jive and Hip Hop Language of Harlem (New York) 33

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Whites Also Adopt Jive and Hip Language This same jive and hip dark dialect was likewise upheld by white entertainers, for example, the Beatles in England, and the Beat era in the United States. (McCrum 243) 33

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Martin Luther King (1963) and Black Preacher Talk "I say to you today… that regardless of the challenges and disappointments existing apart from everything else despite everything I have a fantasy… I have a fantasy that one day on the red slopes of Georgia the children of previous slaves and the children of previous slave proprietors will have the capacity to take a seat together at the table of fellowship... I have a fantasy that my four little kids will one day live in a country where they won't be judged by the shade of their skin… 33

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!Let opportunity ring from the relentless piles of New York… When we let it ring from each town and each village, from each state and each city, we will have the capacity to accelerate that day when the majority of God's kids, Black men and White men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will have the capacity to hold hands and sing in the expressions of the old Negro profound, Free finally, Free finally, say thanks to God Almighty we are free finally! (McCrum 246) 33

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!!PowerPoints African-American Contrastive Analysis African-American Humor 33

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!!!Guest Lecturer if Possible Neal Lester is the Chair of the English Department. He is phenomenal in talking about dark dialect play, and is a brilliant code shifter. He is particularly great at "minister talk." I'll attempt to get him as a visitor teacher if conceivable. 33

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Works Cited Marckwardt, Albert H, amended by J. L. Dillard. American English, Second Edition . New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1980. McCrum, Robert, William Cran, and Robert MacNeil. The Story of English . New York, NY: Penguin, 1986. (wellspring of guide references) McCrum, Robert, William Cran, and Robert MacNeil. The Story of English: Third Revised Edition . New York, NY: Penguin, 2003. (wellspring of content references) 33