Part 5: The Caribbean

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Part 5: The Caribbean Rountree, et. al. as adjusted by Joe Naumann, UMSL

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Chapter 5: The Caribbean (Fig. 5.1) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Learning Objectives Compare and complexity two apparently comparative locales (Latin America & Caribbean) You ought to comprehend the accompanying ideas and models Plantation horticulture, "Ranch America" "Cerebrum deplete" Hurricanes Maroons Free exchange zones Offshore saving money Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Introduction Caribbean incorporates 25 nations and ward regions, situated on Caribbean Sea Includes islands, in addition to beach front Belize and the Guianas Share likenesses with east waterfront districts of Central America first Europeans, then U.S., impacted the locale Plantation agribusiness is imperative High populace densities, ecological issues Economy in light of tourism, seaward saving money, fabricating, sends out (e.g., blooms) Disparities in riches Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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COLONIAL HERITAGE BRITAIN SPAIN FRANCE Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Mainland/Rimland: Middle America: An Alternative Division and Analysis Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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REGIONS OF MIDDLE AMERICA Greater Antilles Mexico Lesser Antilles Central America Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY LAND BRIDGE – Somewhat pipe formed ARCHIPELAGO – Chain or circular segment of islands GREATER ANTILLES – 4 bigger islands LESSER ANTILLES – numerous littler islands NATURAL HAZARDS EARTHQUAKES VOLCANOES HURRICANES Realm positions among the world's most dangerous ranges. I ask why? Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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MAINLAND – RIMLAND DISTINCTION Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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MAINLAND/RIMLAND FRAMEWORK MAINLAND - Leading Spanish movement was in Central and southern Mexico EURO-INDIAN INFLUENCE - Mestizo GREATER ISOLATION HACIENDA PREVAILED (Feudal Structure) Spanish interests to a great extent on Pacific side, while Caribbean range (Rimland) was the place nations sought sugar stick delivering land. – Spanish, French, Dutch, & British Panama center of consideration for between maritime contact Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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RIMLAND EURO-AFRICAN INFLUENCE - Amerindians vanished and slaves were acquired HIGH ACCESSIBILITY PLANTATION ECONOMY – a fare trim " plant " – sugar stick & bananas Attracted outside speculation after autonomy – Plantations did not add to the independence of the settlement, nation, territory Much rivalry for states before mid 19 th century – Spain, France, Britain, Netherlands (Dutch) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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MAINLAND versus RIMLAND MAINLAND RIMLAND Location greater isolation more noteworthy availability Climate altitudinal tropical zonation Physiography mountains islands Culture Euro/Indian African-European Race Mestizo Mulatto Landholding Patterns haciendas ranch Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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HACIENDA versus PLANTATION HACIENDA SPANISH INSTITUTION NOT EFFICIENT BUT SOCIAL PRESTIGE WORKERS LIVED ON THE LAND PLANTATION NORTHERN EUROPEAN ORIGINS EXPORT ORIENTED MONOCROPS IMPORTED CAPITAL AND SKILLS SEASONAL LABOR EFFICIENCY IS KEY Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Plantation (Rimland) History of remote proprietors Production for fare Single money yield Seasonal Employment Profit rationale $$$ Market Vulnerability "Banana" republics Hacienda (Mainland) Domestic market Diversified Crops Year round occupations Pressure on huge ones for land redistribution Small plot of land Self-adequate AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTIONS Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Paradise Undone Isolated nearness: an idea used to clarify Caribbean's strange and opposing position in world Isolation supports social assorted qualities (however constrains financial open door) Proximity to North America guarantees transnational association and monetary reliance Environmental Issues Agriculture's Legacy of Deforestation Much rainforest cover evacuated after entry of Europeans Removed to develop sugar stick and to deliver fuel to refine sugar Often brought about Erosion and demolished land Haiti's woodlands practically gone; 30% left in Jamaica and Dominican Republic; less in Puerto Rico and Cuba Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Erosion Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Environmental Issues in the Caribbean (Fig. 5.4) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Environmental Issues (cont.) Managing the Rimland Forests Rimland: beach front territory, from Belize to S. America This district less undermined, has more woods Supports different untamed life Protected by fruitful preservation endeavors Guyana preservation endeavors less effective Failures in Urban Infrastructure Local natural issues incorporate water tainting and sewage transfer Urban poor most powerless Only half of Haiti's populace has entry to clean water An issue for general wellbeing and tourism Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Tropical woodlands are tremendously profitable fortunes of the entire earth! Tap on the photo to see the video Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Paradise Undone (cont.) The Sea, Islands, and Rimland The Caribbean Sea interfaces the nations in this locale Greater Antilles Four extensive islands of Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), and Puerto Rico Lesser Antilles Double circular segment of little islands from Virgin Islands to Trinidad Rimland States Includes Belize and the Guianas on the South American drift Still contain noteworthy measures of backwoods cover Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Physical Geography of the Caribbean (Fig. 5.5) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Paradise Undone (cont.) Climate and Vegetation Warm all year with bounteous precipitation Forests and actually happening fields in Cuba, Hispaniola, and Guyana Seasonality decided more by precipitation, and less by temperature changes Hurricanes Storms w/overwhelming downpours & wild winds (> 75 miles for each hour) 6 to 12 travel through the locale every year Can have fatal results Hurricane Mitch (1998) killed no less than 10,000, was the most destructive typhoon of the 20 th century Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Climate Map of the Caribbean (Fig. 5.8) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Settlement: 86% of the area's populace is focused on the four islands of the Greater Antilles Largest populace in Cuba Highest populace thickness in Puerto Rico Mainland domains are daintily populated Demographic Trends Region is as of now developing at a rate of 1.3% Fertility Decline Cuba and Barbados have most minimal RNI (rate of regular increment) Education of ladies and out-movement capable The Rise of HIV/AIDS Infection rate more than three times that of North America More than 2% of the Caribbean populace between ages 15 and 49 has HIV/AIDS Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Population of the Caribbean (Fig. 5.9) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Population and Settlement (cont.) Emigration Caribbean diaspora: the monetary flight of Caribbean people groups over the globe Barbadians to England; Surinamese to Netherlands; Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and Jamaicans to U.S. (provincial connection) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Caribbean Diaspora (Fig. 5.11) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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Settlement (cont.) The Rural-Urban Continuum Plantation & subsistence cultivating molded examples Farmlands claimed by first class; little plots for subsistence agribusiness No push to create major urban focuses Caribbean Cities Rural-to-urban movement since 1960s Causes: motorization of horticulture, seaward industrialization, and fast populace development 60% of district today is delegated urban Cuba most urban (75%); Haiti the slightest (35%) Cities reflect frontier impacts Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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The Rural-Urban Continuum (cont.) Housing Decrease in urban employments assumed a noteworthy part in the surge in urbanization As urbanization happened, thousands filled the urban areas Erected shantytowns; filled casual division Electricity pilfered from electrical cables In Cuba, government-fabricated flat squares reflect communism Housing scene homogeneity Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

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A Neo-Africa in the Americas Region is contained a huge number of relatives of ethnically particular people (Africa, Asia, Europe) Creolization – handle in which African and European societies are mixed in the Caribbean The Cultural Imprint of Colonialism Plantation framework pulverized indigenous frameworks and individuals and supplanted them with various social frameworks and societies through subjection Plantation America Designates social locale augmenting halfway up shore of Brazil through the Guianas & the Caribbean to S.E. U.S. Qualities incorporate European tip top decision class subject to African work drive Mono-edit generation: a solitary product, for example, sugar Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wy

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