Part 4 Middle America

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Section 4 – Middle America A – Defining the Realm B – Colonialism and its Impacts C – Mexico D – Central America and the Caribbean

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A The Landscape Defining the domain Latin America: Includes Middle and South America. Mexico: The most significant landmass. Focal America: Narrowing piece of land to 40 miles wide in Panama. Caribbean islands. Major geographic qualities Fragmented - physically and politically. Socially various : Less Latin than South America. Significance of pre-Columbian and African societies. Numerous European domains (English, French, Dutch).

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Physical Geography Land connect A connection (isthmus) between two noteworthy mainland masses. An alternate route between two noteworthy seas. Archipelago About 7000 islands. More noteworthy Antilles: The four vast islands; Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Jamaica. Lesser Antilles: Numerous little islands; Bahamas, Martinique, and so on. Regular risks Earthquakes. Volcanoes. Sea tempests.

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Physical Geography Volcanism Eruption of magma and shake sections and gas blasts. Easy way out to the surface. Regularly relates to outskirts between structural plates. Magma blasts forward as magma in volcanic ejections. Yields the exemplary cone-molded or composite volcanoes that as often as possible connected with volcanic ejections. Montserrat: Major volcanic emission in 1995; continuous to 2003. Departure of 7,000 out of the 10,500 populace. More than a large portion of the island now inhabitable.

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Tectonic Plates in Middle America North American Plate Caribbean Plate Cocos Plate Pacific Plate

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Physical Geography Hurricanes Violent typhoons. Frame amid the mid year and early fall. Around 96 tropical twisters are accounted for every year. Winding shape and bended ways: Caused by the Coriolis impact. Framed 5 degrees north and south of the equator. In the north, storms take after clockwise ways. In the south, storms take after a counterclockwise way. Warmth is the basic calculate the development of hurricanes.

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World Hurricane Tracks

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Regions of Middle America Atlantic Ocean Lesser Antilles Greater Antilles Mexico Puerto Rico Cuba Dominican Republic Haiti Jamaica Belize Caribbean Sea Honduras Guatemala Nicaragua El Salvador Pacific Ocean Costa Rica Panama Central America

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Regional Divisions Central America From Guatemala to Panama. Geopolitically divided. Panama Canal zone controlled by the United States until 1999. Populace of around 30 millions, generally Métis. Estate framework regularly controlled by American multinationals. Fares of bananas, espresso, sugar and cotton. Reliance on the American market.

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Regional Divisions Caribbean Large number of Islands, around 35 million occupants. Lesser Antilles; the peak of volcanic mountains. Isolated small scale expresses; no other proportional on the planet: Other island states are gatherings of islands. European and African impact: Cuba: 70% White. Haiti: 90% Black. Dominican Republic: 60% Métis. Critical fare capacities: Sugar for Cuba; Coffee, Sugar and Cacao for Hispaniola; Bauxite for Jamaica. Tourism: Important capacity. Subject to the United States (vicinity).

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Mesoamerica Culture hearths Pre-Columbian Latin America was a mix of a couple of urban-based organizations managed by the Mayas, Incas or Aztecs. Maya human advancement: 3000 BC. Exemplary period 200-900 AD with a populace of 2-3 million. Swamps; Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, Yucatan landmass. Religious structure; given way by the 9 th century. Aztec human progress: 1300 AD. Good countries; Valley of Mexico. Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) with a populace of more than 200,000 individuals. Ousted by Cortes between 1519-21 with 508 troopers.

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Pre-Columbian Civilizations in Middle America Atlantic Ocean Aztec Maya Pacific Ocean

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Colonial Experience Conquista Began in the mid 1500s. To begin with in the Caribbean (Hispaniola). Locale partitioned into various individual pioneer domains. Military marvel (black powder guns and stallions). Absence of solidarity among indigenous gatherings (Aztecs, Incas) that the Spanish experienced. Affect on the indigenous populace Scattered gatherings of individuals living in subsistence economies. Sicknesses brought by the Europeans: Decimated the indigenous populaces to levels radically bring down those preceding the start of the attack. Latin American populace tumbled from around 60 million in 1500 to 15 million in 1650.

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Colonial Experience Land appointment Colonial business interests. Lands dedicated to nourishment crops for nearby utilization were changed over to money editing for fare Forced urbanization Relocation of the populace in nucleated towns and towns. Favored control and transformation to Catholicism. Arrive distance Famine; loss of 90% of the populace. Destitution. Movement. Minimal farming assorted qualities.

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Colonial Experience Religion Major worry of the Europeans, particularly of the Spanish. Reconquista (1492): Driving the remainder of the Moors from Spain. Religious battle and a patriot one. Religious enthusiasm persisted into provincial action too. Blend of religious movement with provincial development. Religious change to Catholicism: Occurred on a monstrous scale. Religious foundation was among the early needs of the pioneer powers: places of worship, cloisters, houses of prayer. Nearness of the Church is felt basically wherever in Latin America today.

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Colonial Experience Catholicism blended with indigenous religions: Unique mix that conveys an exceptionally solid stamp of the nearby culture. Catholicism's plenty of holy people and myths: Served to make the transformation procedure itself go all the more easily. Arrive possession Pre-Columbian Latin America: Generally shared. Idea of private responsibility for was outsider to the greater part of the gatherings. Modified to address the issues of the pilgrim economy that the Europeans built up. An essentially subsistence farming economy would deliver next to no surplus to misuse.

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Colonial Experience Land distance Implementation of the encomienda: An imitate of the European medieval framework. Framework that ordered the installment of tributes to the Crown. Constrained the indigenous gatherings into the money economy. Subsistence farming would not give the way to pay the assessment. The Crown compensated its conquistadores with colossal land awards. Most give insurance and the lessons of Christianity. Counting much land effectively utilized by the indigenous people groups. Arrangement of substantial haciendas (homes): Encomienda framework guaranteed the nearness of a huge work constrain that basically was a slave work drive. Specialists got little advantage from their works past the capacity to pay the encomienda.

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Land Tenure Systems

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Colonial Experience Social stratification Development of a socially stratified society along racial lines. Miscegenation: Mixed race coming about amongst Caucasians and the indigenous populace. Miscegenation started right off the bat amid the frontier time frame. Early relocations from Europe were principally male movements. Mestizos (Métis): European/Indian. Mulattos: European/Black. By and large proceeded into contemporary times. One of the abrogating substances of Latin America. One of the district's most noteworthy issues.

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Colonial Experience Upper class A little gathering controlling Latin American culture. Essentially involved individuals of European extraction. A large number of whom are straightforwardly plummeted from the first pilgrims of the Conquista. Acquired the vast landholdings from that time. White collar class Historically little in Latin America: Growing generously in the post-WW II period. Contained less rich Europeans, mestizos and mulattos.

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Colonial Experience Lower class Most various gathering in the district. Remainders of unassimilated indigenous populaces: Particularly various in Guatemala, parts of Mexico (Oaxaca and Chiapas states), Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and parts of Brazil, Venezuela, and Paraguay Work in awesome homes: Often as tenant farmers. Giving an arranged rate of their create to the landowner, keeping the rest for family utilize or deal. Descendents of African slaves: Imported amid the provincial time frame for their work. Various in quite a bit of Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba; and in some beach front regions of Colombia, Panama, and Mexico.

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Euro-African impact. High availability (exchange). Ranch economy (Sugar and banana). Euro-Indian impact. More noteworthy separation. Hacienda won.

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Mexico Modern Mexico High social stratification as with the vast majority of Latin America. When freedom was accomplished, tyranny came about, undermining progress. The result of the 1910 upheaval. Going for redistributing land: 8,000 haciendas taking all the great farmland. 95% of country families owning no land ( peones ). Arrive circulation in a rustic culture still a noteworthy issue. Generous oil holds controlled by the administration.

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Importance of Mexico Population issues 106 million tenants. 60% Métis, 30% locals and 10% whites. Pre-Colombian legacy. Young populace with a normal age < 20. Chance to relocate to the USA - lawfully or wrongfully. Spoken to an outlet for Mexico's abundance work. All the while fills a need in the US as Mexican laborers energetically take occupations that most US subjects don't need.

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Mexican Migration to the United States The Bracero Program (1943-1964) From the Spanish "Brazos" which means individuals working with their arms. The Mexico-US movement example is late (mid 20 th century). Set up amid WW II (1943): Allowed Mexican ranch specialists to work briefly on homesteads in Texas, California, and the Southwest USA. Compensate for the work deficiency brought about by the war (the USA had more than 11 million individuals in uniform). The program functioned admirably and helped both nations. Around 5 million Mexican immi