Part 4 Constitutional Authority to Regulate Business

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2. History. Prior to the Revolutionary War, States needed a confederation with feeble national government and extremely constrained forces. After the war, in 1787, the States voted to revise Articles of Confederation and make another, national government that common force with States. . 3.

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Section 4 Constitutional Authority to Regulate Business

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History Before the Revolutionary War, States needed a confederation with frail national government and exceptionally restricted forces. After the war, in 1787, the States voted to alter Articles of Confederation and make another, national government that common power with States.

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§1: Constitutional Powers of Government Constitution set up an elected type of government with balanced governance among three branches: official, administrative and legal. National government has constrained, specified forces assigned from States. Benefits and Immunities Clause (Art. IV §2) Full Faith and Credit Clause (Art. IV §1)

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U.S. Business Clause Power to direct interstate trade characterized in Gibbons v. Ogden (1824). Development to private organizations started with Wickard v. Fillburn (1942). Today, the Commerce Clause approves the national government to control for all intents and purposes any business endeavor, including the web based. Limits: U.S. v. Lopez (1995) Case 4.1: Reno v. Condon (2000)

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State Commerce States have innate police forces to manage wellbeing, security, open request, ethics and general welfare. "Torpid" Commerce Clause. Case 4.2: Ferguson v. Friendfinders. Inc. (2002) State laws that generously meddle with interstate trade will be struck down.

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U.S. Matchless quality Clause Article VI of the Constitution "Preeminent Law of the Land." in the event of direct clash amongst state and government law, state law is invalid. Congress can seize states. Government Taxing and Spending Powers.

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§2: Business and the Bill of Rights Bill of Rights are not outright. Initially the Bill of Rights was a cutoff on the national government's forces. Amid the mid 1900's, the Supreme Court connected the Bill of Rights to the States by means of the "due process" condition of the fourteenth Amendment.

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Free Speech Afforded most elevated security by courts. Typical Speech. Texas v. Johnson (1989). R.A.V. versus City of St.Paul (1992).

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Commercial Speech Advertising is ensured discourse. Confinements must: Implement considerable government intrigue; Directly propel that intrigue; and Go no more distant than would normally be appropriate. Case 4.3: Bad Frog Brewery (1998).

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Corporate Political Speech Afforded huge assurance by the First Amendment yet not to the level of discourse of regular people. Initially National v. Bellotti (1978). Merged Edison v. Open Service Commission (1980).

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Unprotected Speech Certain sorts of discourse are not secured by the First Amendment: Slander. Profanity (Miller v. California). Words that need defending. Online Obscenity CDA, COPA, Children's Internet Protection Act.

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Freedom of Religion First Amendment numerous neither preclude the "foundation" nor restrict the "free work out" of religion. The First Amendment does not require finish "partition of chapel and state." First Amendment orders settlement of all religions and precludes threatening vibe toward any. Zorach v. Clauson (1952) and Lynch v. Donnelly (1984).

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Freedom of Religion First Amendment ensures the "free work out" of religion. Businesses should sensibly suit convictions the length of representative has earnestly held convictions. Frazee v. Illinois (1989).

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Searches and Seizures Fourth Amendment requires warrant with "reasonable justification." Warrantless special cases exist for "transient" confirmation. Hunts of Business: for the most part business monitors must have a warrant. Marshall v. Barlow's (1978).

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Self-Incrimination Fifth Amendment ensures no individual can be constrained to affirm against himself in a criminal continuing. Does not make a difference to enterprises or organizations.

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§3: Due Process and Equal Protection Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments give "no individual might be denied of life, freedom or property without due procedure of law." Procedural and Substantive issues.

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Procedural Due Process Procedures denying a person of her rights must be reasonable and impartial. Constitution requires satisfactory notice and a reasonable and unprejudiced hearing before an impartial judge.

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Substantive Due Process Focuses on the substance or substance of enactment. Laws constraining major rights (discourse, security, religion) must have a "convincing state intrigue." Laws restricting non-principal rights require just a "sane premise."

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Equal Protection Strict Scrutiny. Laws that influence the major privileges of comparably arranged people in an alternate way are liable to the "strict examination" test. Any "suspect class" (race, national beginning) must serve a "convincing state intrigue" which incorporates helping past separation.

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Equal Protection Intermediate Scrutiny. Connected to laws including sexual orientation or authenticity. To be protected laws must be generously identified with essential government targets. (Case: Illegitimate high school pregnancy).

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Equal Protection Rational Basis Test. Connected to matters of monetary or social welfare. Laws will be sacred if there is a sane premise identifying with true blue government intrigue.

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§4: Privacy Rights Fundamental right not explicitly found in the constitution, but rather got from First, Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments. Laws and strategies influencing security are liable to the convincing interest test.

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Law on the Web Online Constitution Center See the " Vote-Smart " website on federalism. Federalist . . Legitimate Research Exercises on the Web .