Part 27. Biomolecules: Lipids

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Section 27. Biomolecules: Lipids Based on McMurry's Organic Chemistry, sixth release

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About Lipids Naturally materials that specially separate into nonpolar natural solvents Includes fats, oils, waxes, a few vitamins and hormones, a few segments of film General sorts: esters ("saponifiable") and those that can't be hydrolyzed

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27.1 Waxes, Fats, and Oils Waxes - contain esters shaped from long-chain (C16-C36) carboxylic acids and long-chain alcohols (C24-C36) Triacontyl hexadecanoate is in beeswax

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Fats and Oils Animal fats and vegetable are triacylglycerols oil Triesters of glycerol with three long-chain carboxylic acids Saponification of a fat or oil with (response with watery NaOH) yields glycerol and three unsaturated fats

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Fatty Acids (from Fats and Oils) Straight-chain (C 12 - C 20 ) carboxylic acids Double securities are cis-substituted yet trans-unsaturated fat likewise happen A fat or oil in nature happens as a blend of a wide range of triacylglycerols The most copious immersed unsaturated fats are palmitic (C 16 ) and stearic (C 18 )

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Unsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Oleic (C 18 with one C=C) and linolenic (C 18 with 3 C=C) are the most inexhaustible unsaturated

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27.2 Soap A blend of sodium or potassium salts of long-chain unsaturated fats delivered by soluble hydrolysis (saponification) of creature fat with antacid

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Cleansing Action of Soap The carboxylate end of the long-chain particle is ionic and in this manner is specially broken down in water The hydrocarbon tail is nonpolar and breaks up in oil and oil Soaps empower oil to be disintegrated into water

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Detergents "Hard" water contains Mg +2 and Ca +2 that frame insoluble salts with cleansers Synthetic cleansers are alkylbenzene sulfonates that break up earth like cleansers however don't shape scums with Mg +2 and Ca +2 .

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27.3 Phospholipids are diesters of H 3 PO 4 , phosphoric corrosive Phosphoric corrosive can shape monoesters, diesters and triesters by and large these are known as "phosphates"

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Phosphoglycerides Contain a glycerol spine connected by ester bonds to two unsaturated fats and phosphoric corrosive Fatty corrosive deposits with C 12 –C 20 The phosphate gather at C3 has an ester connection to an amino liquor

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Phosphoglyceride Membranes Phosphoglycerides include the significant lipid segment of cell films Nonpolar tails total in the focal point of a bilayer Ionic head is presented to dissolvable

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Sphingolipids The other real gathering of phospholipids Sphingosine or a dihydroxyamine spine Constituents of plant and creature cell layers Abundant in mind and nerve tissue, as covering around nerve strands.

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27.4 Prostaglandins C20 lipids that contain a five-membered ring with two long side chains Present in little sums in all body tissues and liquids Many physiological impacts

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Prostaglandin Sources Biosynthesized from arachidonic corrosive (C20 unsaturated fat) Catalyzed by cyclooxygenase (COX)

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27.5 Terpenoids Steam refining of plant concentrates produces "vital oils" Chemically identified with mixes in turpentine (from pine sap) called terpenes and therefore called terpenoids Mostly hydrocarbons (a few oxygens) that don't contain esters (stable to hydrolysis)

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Terpenoids Are Isoprenoids Terpenoid structures are gotten from isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) units associated go to tail (Isoprene Rule) The expression "go to tail" implies that divergent finishes are associated (you can pick which is a "head" and which is a "tail")

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Classification of Terpenoids Classified by number of di-isoprenoid (C 10 ) units they contain Monoterpenes have 10-carbons, sesquiterpenes (sesqui = 1/2) have 15-carbons from three isoprene units, et cetera

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Some Important Terpenoids The triterpene lanosterol is the forerunner of steroid hormones The tetraterpene b - carotene is a wellspring of vitamin A

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27.6 Biosynthesis of Terpenoids Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) frames higher isoprenoids in responses catalyzed by prenyl transferase Monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, and tetraterpoids emerge from 1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate.

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Mevalonate Pathway to Isopentenyl Diphosphate Begins with the change of acetic acid derivation to acetyl CoA took after by Claisen buildup to yield acetoacetyl CoA Catalyzed by acetoacetyl-CoA acetyltransferase

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Aldol Condensation Produces HMG-CoA Carbonyl buildup response of acetoacetyl CoA with acetyl CoA Produces 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA)

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Reduction Forms Mevalonate HMG CoA is diminished to mevalonate Catalyzed by HMG CoA reductase using NADPH

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Conversion of Mevalonate to IPP Pyrophosphorylation gives mevalonyl-PP Addition of phosphate from ATP took after by loss of CO 2 and phosphate

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Conversion of Isopentenyl Diphosphate to Terpenoids For triterpenes and bigger, no holds barred coupling of farnesyl diphosphates gives squalene

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Mechanism of Isomerization of IPP to DMAPP is catalyzed by IPP isomerase through a carbocation pathway

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Coupling Mechanism Nucleophilic substitution response in which the twofold obligation of IPP carries on as a nucleophile in uprooting diphosphate particle leaving bunch (PPO  )

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Conversions of Monoterpenoids Typically includes carbocation intermediates and multistep response pathways catalyzed by a terpene cyclase

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27.7 Steroids Steroids,are another class of nonsaponifiable lipid, characterized by structure Has four intertwined rings A, B, C, and D, starting at the lower left Carbon molecules are numbered starting in the A ring The six-membered rings are in altered seat compliances

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Functions of Steroids In people as hormones, steroids are compound errand people discharged by organs and brought through the circulation system to target tissues Also generally conveyed as cholesterol

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Male Sex Hormones Testosterone and androsterone are the two most vital male sex hormones, or androgens Androstanedione is an antecedent

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Female Sex Hormones Estrone and estradiol are the two most vital female sex hormones, or estrogens Progesterone is the most essential progestin, steroids that capacity in pregnancy

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Adrenocortical Hormones Adrenocortical steroids: emitted by the adrenal organs close to the upper end of every kidney Mineralocorticoids: control tissue swelling by managing cell salt adjust Glucocorticoids: direction of glucose digestion system and in the control of aggravation

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Synthetic Steroids Made in pharmaceutical research facilities as new medications Includes oral contraceptives and anabolic specialists Methandrostenolone is an anabolic steroid utilized for tissue-building

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27.8 Stereochemistry of Steroids Two cyclohexane rings can be participated in either a cis or a trans way In cis-decalin, both gatherings at the ring-intersection positions are on a similar side of the two rings In trans-decalin, the gatherings at the ring intersections are on inverse sides

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A/B Junction in Steroids can have either a cis or a trans combination of the An and B ring (B–C and C–D) are normally trans

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27.9 Steroid Biosynthesis Enzyme-catalyzed expansion of oxygen iota to squalene Stereospecific development of an oxirane from an alkene

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Cyclization to Steroid Stork-Eschenmoser component Enzyme-catalyzed See Figure 27.6