Part 2 The Chemical Level of Organization

Chapter 2 the chemical level of organization l.jpg
1 / 34
0
0
1126 days ago, 395 views
PowerPoint PPT Presentation
How Matter is Organized. Science is the art of the structure and connections of matter.all living things comprise of matter.Matter is anything that involves space.mass is the measure of matter in any object.weight is the power of gravity following up on matter.In space, weight is near zero, however mass continues as before as on Earth..

Presentation Transcript

Slide 1

Section 2 The Chemical Level of Organization Matter components iotas and atoms Chemical bonds Chemical vitality Chemical responses Inorganic mixes Organic mixes

Slide 2

How Matter is Organized Chemistry is the exploration of the structure and communications of matter. every single living thing comprise of matter. Matter is anything that involves space. mass is the measure of matter in any protest. weight is the compel of gravity following up on matter. In space, weight is near zero, however mass continues as before as on Earth.

Slide 3

Chemical Elements are substances that can not be part into less difficult substances by normal means. 112 components ( 92 happen actually ) 26 of normally happening components are in the body spoke to by compound images ( initial 1-2 letters of name ) 4 components frame 96 % of the body's mass hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen

Slide 4

Structure of Atoms are the littlest units of matter that hold the properties of a component Atoms comprise of 3 sorts of subatomic particles protons, neutrons and electrons Nucleus contains protons (p+) & neutrons (unbiased charge) Electrons (e-) encompass the core as a cloud (electron shells are assigned areas of the cloud)

Slide 5

Electron Shells Most likely locale of the electron cloud in which to discover electrons Each electron shell can hold just a predetermined number of electrons first shell can hold just 2 electrons second shell can hold 8 electrons third shell can hold 18 electrons higher shells (up to 7) hold numerous more electrons Number of electrons = number of protons Each molecule is electrically impartial; charge = 0

Slide 6

Atomic Number & Mass Number Atomic number will be number of protons in the core. . Mass number is the entirety of its protons and neutrons.

Slide 7

Ions, Molecules, & Compounds Ions are framed by ionization a particle that surrendered or picked up an electron composed with its substance image and (+) or (- ) Example: Sodium loses an electron to end up Na+ (cation) Chlorine picks up an electron to wind up Cl-(anion) Molecule when at least 2 iotas meet up, share an electron ex. O 2 if molecules are not a similar component = compound ex. NaCl, H 2 O

Slide 8

Chemical Bonds hold together the iotas in particles and intensifies A molecule with a full external electron shell is steady and improbable to shape a bond with another particle Octet decide states that organically vital components associate to create artificially stable courses of action of 8 electrons in the valence shell. Regardless of whether electrons are shared, given or procured decides the sorts of bonds framed

Slide 9

Ionic Bonds Positively and contrarily charged particles pull in each other to shape an ionic bond In the body, ionic bonds are discovered chiefly in teeth and bones An ionic exacerbate that separates in water into + and - particles is called an electrolyte the arrangement can direct an electric ebb and flow

Slide 10

The Ionic Bond in Sodium Chloride Sodium loses an electron to end up Na+ (cation) Chlorine picks up an electron to wind up Cl-(anion) Na+ and Cl-are pulled in to each other to frame the compound sodium chloride (NaCl) - table salt Ionic mixes by and large exist as solids

Slide 11

Covalent Bonds Atoms share electrons to shape covalent securities Electrons invest the majority of the energy between the 2 nuclear cores single security = share 1pair twofold bone = share 2 sets triple security = share 3 sets

Slide 12

Polar Covalent Bonds Unequal sharing of electrons between iotas. In a water atom, oxygen draws in the hydrogen electrons all the more emphatically Oxygen has more prominent electronegativity as demonstrated by the negative Greek delta sign.

Slide 13

Hydrogen Bonds Polar covalent bonds amongst hydrogen and different particles Only around 5% as solid as covalent bonds Useful in setting up connections between atoms Large 3-D particles are regularly held together by countless bonds.

Slide 14

Inorganic Compounds & Solvents Most of the chemicals in the body are mixes Inorganic mixes as a rule need carbon & are basically basic water, salts, acids and bases Organic mixes contain carbon & ordinarily hydrogen dependably have covalent securities

Slide 15

Inorganic Acids, Bases & Salts Acids, bases and salts dependably separate into particles in the event that they are disintegrated in water acids separate into H+ and at least one anions bases separate into OH-and at least one cations salts separate into anions and cations, none of which are either H+ or OH-Acid & bases respond in the body to frame salts Electrolytes are critical salts in the body that convey electric ebb and flow (in nerve or muscle)

Slide 16

Water Most essential inorganic compound in living frameworks Medium of almost all concoction responses Polarity uneven sharing of valence electrons fractional negative charge close oxygen iota and incomplete positive charge close hydrogen iotas makes it a fabulous dissolvable for ionic or polar substances gives water atoms union permits water to direct temperature changes Oxygen part Hydrogen parts – Partial negative charge at oxygen end of atom Partial positive charge at hydrogen end of particle –

Slide 17

Water as a Solvent Most adaptable dissolvable known polar covalent securities (hydrophilic versus hydrophobic) its shape permits each water particle to interface with at least 4 neighboring particles/atoms oxygen pulls in sodium hydrogen draws in chloride sodium & chloride separate as ionic securities are broken hydration circles encompass every particle and diminishing plausibility of securities being improved Water breaks up or suspends numerous substances

Slide 18

Concept of pH scale keeps running from 0 to 14 (centralization of H+ in moles/liter) pH of 7 is nonpartisan (refined water - grouping of OH-and H+ are equivalent) pH underneath 7 is acidic or more 7 is basic pH of 1 (10 times more H+ than pH of 2)

Slide 19

Buffer Systems of the Body liquids shift in pH however the scope of each is constrained and is kept up by an assortment of buffering frameworks. gastric juice 1.2 to 3.0; salivation 6.35 to 6.85; bile 7.6 to 8.6 and blood 7.35 to 7.45 Buffers change over solid acids to frail ones which contribute less H+ particles & have less impact on pH

Slide 20

Organic Compounds Always contain carbon and hydrogen Usually contain covalent securities Usually extensive, one of a kind atoms with complex capacities Make up 40% of body mass Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, DNA/RNA, ATP

Slide 21

Carbohydrates Diverse gathering of substances shaped from C, H, and O proportion of one carbon iota for each water particle (starches signifies "watered carbon") glucose is 6 carbon iotas and 6 water particles (H20) Main capacity is wellspring of vitality for ATP arrangement

Slide 22

Diversity of Carbohydrates 3 sizes of sugar particles Monosaccharides-glucose, fructose Disaccharides-glucose + fructose = sucrose Polysaccharides-10-100s of monosaccharides consolidated, 100s of glucose = glycogen

Slide 23

Lipids = fats Formed from C, H and O incorporates fats, phospholipids, and steroids Hydrophobic insoluble in polar solvents like water

Slide 24

Triglycerides Fats made out of a solitary glycerol atom and 3 unsaturated fat particles three-carbon glycerol particle is the spine Very thought type of vitality 9 calories/gram contrasted with 4 for proteins & sugars our bodies store triglycerides in fat cells in the event that we eat additional sustenance

Slide 25

Triglycerides 3 unsaturated fats & one glycerol particle

Slide 26

Phospholipids Composition of phospholipid particle a polar head a phosphate bunch (PO4-3) & glycerol atom can frame hydrogen securities with water 2 nonpolar unsaturated fat tails interface just with lipids Amphipathic (atoms with polar & nonpolar parts) Composition of cell film twofold layer of phospholipids with tails in focus

Slide 27

head tails Chemical Nature of Phospholipids

Slide 28

Steroids Formed from 4 rings of carbon molecules combined Common steroids sex hormones, bile salts, vitamins & Cholesterol found in creature cell layers beginning material for amalgamation of different steroids

Slide 29

Proteins 12-18% of body weight Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen Constructed from mixes of 20 amino acids. dipeptides shaped from 2 amino acids joined by a covalent bond called a peptide bond polypeptides affixes framed from 10 to 2000 amino acids . Levels of basic association essential, auxiliary and tertiary state of the protein impacts its capacity to frame bonds

Slide 30

Amino Acid Structure Central carbon iota Amino gathering (NH 2 ) Carboxyl gathering (COOH) Side chains (R bunches) shift between amino acids

Slide 31

Levels of Structural Organization Primary is one of a kind succession of amino acids Secondary is alpha helix or creased sheet collapsing Tertiary is 3-dimensional state of polypeptide chain Quaternary is relationship of different polypeptide chains

Slide 32

DNA Structure Huge atoms containing C, H, O, N and phosphorus Each quality of our hereditary material is a bit of DNA that controls the blend of a particular protein A particle of DNA is a chain of nucleotides Nucleotide = nitrogenous base (A-G-T-C) + pentose sugar + phosphate aggregate Adenine sets with thymine, guanine sets with cytosine

Slide 33

RNA Structure Differs from DNA single stranded ribose sugar not deoxyribose sugar uracil nitrogenous base replaces thymine Types of RNA inside the phone, each with a particular capacity dispatcher RNA ribosomal RNA exchange RNA

Slide 34

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Energy cash of the phone Consists of 3 phosphate bunches connected to adenine & 5-carbon sugar (ribose)

SPONSORS